IPM practices to be implemented
- Grape Berry Moth Risk Assessment protocol, see discussion below.
- Grape Leafhopper, see discussion below.
- continue Disease Management Protocol, see discussion below.
- apply final spray for primary-season protectant disease management protocol
- weather parameters of temperature, precipitation, leaf wetness, and relative humidity
- Grape Rootworm, see discussion below.
Inoculum available for infection
- Botrytis bunch rot 211k pdf file
- powdery mildew 490k pdf file
- black rot 548k pdf file
- Phomopsis Cane and Leaf Spot 277k pdf file
- downy mildew 300k pdf file
Vineyards in the high- or intermediate-risk categories for grape berry moth (also available as a 234k pdf file) should receive an insecticide application at 10 days postbloom (10 days after 50 percent bloom). Grape berry moth damage has been shown to be concentrated on vineyard edges. Therefore, application of insecticide to only the outside three to six rows can often provide economic management of grape berry moth. This strategy works best with rows running parallel to vineyard edges. Current sprayer technology, however, does not allow for adequate coverage for rows perpendicular to vineyard edges.
(also available as a 230k
Insecticide applications in vineyards in the high- or intermediate-risk categories for grape berry moth will also provide management of leafhopper. In most years this single postbloom application of insecticide is all that is needed to maintain this pest below economic levels. Vineyards that are at low risk for grape berry moth damage should be treated with insecticide at this time only if substantial leaf feeding by adults was found in the prebloom scouting. If insecticide is applied only for leafhopper in a low-risk vineyard, the insecticide label should be consulted for rates. Many insecticides can be applied at greatly reduced rates for management of leafhopper. If grape berry moth management is also required, the full rate of insecticide should be used. For specific rate recommendations please consult the current edition of the New York and Pennsylvania Pest Management Recommendations for Grapes.
Weather should continue to be monitored throughout the growing season until veraison (color change). Disease management requirements will differ depending on vineyard site and variety. Good primary-season (bud break through pea-size berries) management of powdery mildew (490k pdf file) and black rot (548k pdf file) will enable Concord growers to discontinue their fungicide program at pea-size berries (mid-July). Growers of highly susceptible varieties, however, must continue disease management for powdery mildew, downy mildew, and Botrytis bunch rot (211k pdf file) much later into the season to limit berry infections (berries become less susceptible to infection by black rot and powdery mildew at 8° Brix) and to limit early defoliation due to severe foliar infections of powdery and/or downy mildew. See IPM Disease Management Protocols for complete information on postinfection disease management protocols.
(also available as a 255k pdf file)
Although rootworm was once one of the worst insect pests of grapes in the Northeast, it is now considered only an occasional pest because modern insecticides have provided control of it. Adults feed on grape foliage, producing chainlike feeding patterns on the leaves. Immature stages feed on the roots and can cause serious damage and vineyard decline over a period of years if left untreated. Grape rootworm has appeared in damaging levels in some New York State vineyards in recent years and may require treatment if widespread leaf injury by adults is present. Vineyards in the low-risk category for grape berry moth are the most vulnerable to rootworm problems and should be monitored for adult feeding in late June or early July. In vineyards with rootworm infestations, a postbloom insecticide application will control adults and prevent infestation of roots by the larval stage.