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Preventing "Worms" in Apples with IPM Technology 2007

Download the entire report in pdf format, 155k

Project Leaders: D. Breth, E. Tee, Lake Ontario Fruit Program-CCE

Abstract: The NY processing apple market (excluding juice) is worth $33 M, and fresh market is worth $137 M.  Apple IPM programs are being challenged by codling moth (CM), oriental fruit moth (OFM), and lesser appleworm (LAW). These pests have been in the background historically and controlled by strategies meant for control of other pests.  These are direct fruit feeding pests, the larvae of which feed in the flesh of fruit, commonly referred to as “internal leps”.    In the early 2000’s, these pests were most commonly noted in apples at harvest where insecticides for obliquebanded leafroller were more selective to leafrollers replacing broad-spectrum organophosphates.

There is a zero tolerance in most fruit markets for infestation by these pests, requiring intensive control strategies.  There is a very large economic impact on the apple industry either by fruit value lost due to infestation or through increased cost in controlling these pests.  A 50 bin truckload of Idareds in NY for processing is worth $3957, but if rejected for juice due to worm infestation, the value is only $1630.  That is a potential loss of $7 M with 3400 acres of Idared in NY.   When 3 codling moth larvae were detected in apple shipments from Washington to Taiwan , the Washington State apple industry lost access to a $47M market in Taiwan for 5 months in 2005 which impacted on our domestic market.

There are many IPM methods under development bringing opportunities for extension programs to reduce the economic risk of fruit infestation, and minimize the risks of pesticides used.