Management Programs for Internal Lepidoptera in Apples Using Pheromone Mating Disruption and In-season Fruit Inspection 2006
Project Leaders: A. Agnello, H. Reissig, Dept. of Entomology, Cornell University, NYSAES, Geneva
Cooperators: D. Breth, CCE, Lake Ontario Regional Fruit IPM Educator, Albion; J. Misiti, Misiti Consulting Services, Lyndonville; J. Eve, Eve Consulting Services, Naples
Abstract: During the last 5 years, severe outbreaks of two species of internal Lepidoptera (worms) have occurred in apple production regions in western NY. These outbreaks have caused severe financial losses to growers throughout this region because numerous loads of apples have been rejected for fresh or processing markets. Initial studies conducted have shown that neither the currently available organophosphate (OP)-based technology nor programs relying on more selective reduced-risk products can provide adequate, cost-effective control of these pests in high-risk commercial orchards within these outbreak areas. This escalating incidence of severe fruit damage in commercial orchards clearly poses a threat to the continued viability of the industry within the region. The objectives of this year's study were to:
1) Compare the effectiveness of three different pheromone dispensing systems for mating disruption of oriental fruit moth and codling moth in commercial apple orchards;
2) Use a repeated fruit sampling protocol and pheromone trap monitoring to determine the need for and subsequent timing of special insecticide sprays against oriental fruit moth and codling moth in both disrupted and non-disrupted orchards.
Three different pheromone products—Isomate ties (CM/OFM combo or M-100 plus CTT), MSTRS-OFM packets, and Hercon Disrupt Micro-Flakes (CM and/or OFM) plus a sequential fruit sampling procedure were evaluated in codling moth and/or oriental fruit moth management programs in 9 commercial orchards of varying pest pressure. The CM products were included only in the three orchards where codling moth was deemed to be the primary pest, in combination with a 4-spray program of Cyd-X granulosis virus. All pheromone treatments generally suppressed catches of CM, OFM, and lesser appleworm moths to very low levels, although some breakthrough did occur, so trap shutdown was not absolute in all cases. The fruit sampling procedure, comprising on-tree inspection of at least 100 fruits per plot for each of 7 weeks during July and August, was convenient to implement and appeared to effectively allow detection of low-level infestations at a very early stage, so that the growers could be notified of any extra needed control measures in a timely fashion. Fruit damage at harvest was low in all treatments, and statistically comparable to the grower standard program at 6 of the 9 sites. At two sites, the damage was significantly lowest in the Isomate site, and in one site, the Isomate and MSTRS treatments sustained significantly higher (1.8–2.9%) damage than did the grower's standard program (0.1%), although proximity to a large bin storage area could have contributed substantially to this result.