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Weekly Field Crops Pest Report 2012

September 17, 2012, Volume 11 Number 22

  1. View from the Field
  2. Weather Outlook
  3. Stalk Rots in Field Corn
  4. Western Bean Cutworm
  5. Clipboard Checklist
  6. Contact Information

View from the Field


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It was a busy pest week even though we’re closing in on the end of the growing season. Reports of stalk rot in field corn came from several areas of the state. For more information on stalk rots, please see article below.

Also hot off the press: reports of northern corn leaf blight (NCLB), a fungal disease caused by Exserohilum turcicum. NCLB shows as a gray-green or tan cigar-shaped lesion 1 to 6 inches long.

northern corn leaf blight

The disease overwinters on corn residue as mycelia (the fungal “body”) and conidia (asexual spores). Warm and moist weather in early summer favors NCLB, while rain or wind carry the spores. NCLB can become a larger problem in no-tilled or reduced tilled systems.

NCLB Management:

  1. Select resistant cultivars.
  2. Use 1 to 2 year rotations.
  3. If warranted a fungicide can be used.

I (Ken Wise) have reported white mold on soybeans in Dutchess County these last 3 weeks. The whole field is now lodged. The sclerotia (see photo) on the plants are hard storage structures that can survive up to 7 years in the soil. Learn more at Sclerotinia Stem Rot/White Mold: in Soybeans.

white mold on soybeans

While scouting corn at the Cornell Research Farm this week I found lots of corn ear rots. About 90 percent of the ears had some form of mold. This stems from drought stress much of the summer. Some kernels had even sprouted. For more information see last week’s article on corn ear rots.

corn ear rot

corn ear rot

corn ear rot

corn ear rot

Weather Outlook

September 13, 2012
Jessica Rennells, Northeast Region Climate Center, Cornell University

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Last week, temperatures ranged from 0 to over 3 degrees above normal. Rainfall ranged from a trace to 1 inch for most of the state, while areas in the Catskills and part of western NY had over 1 inch. The base-50 growing degree-days ranged from 75 to 125 (50 to 75 in the Adirondacks).

Today is mostly sunny with highs in the upper 70s and low 80s. Some scattered showers and thunderstorms are possible in the afternoon hours as a cold front passes. Lows will be in the low to mid 50s. Saturday will be cooler with highs ranging in the 70s; some scattered showers are possible. Lows will be in the 40s to low 50s. Sunday will be mostly sunny with temperatures in the low to mid 70s. A few scattered showers are possible in the Great Lake region. Lows will be in the mid 40s to low 50s. Monday will be in the low to mid 70s with scattered showers. Overnight temperatures will be in the 40s to mid 50s. Tuesdays temperatures will range throughout 70s with scattered showers. Lows will be in the mid to 50s.Wednesday temperatures will in upper 60s and low 70s with continuing scattered showers. Lows will be in the low to mid 50s.

The five-day precipitation amounts will range from 1/10 to ½ of an inch. The 8-14 day (Sept 20-26) out look is showing below normal temperatures and above normal precipitation.

National Weather Service Climate Prediction Service Maps of 8-14 day outlooks

National Weather Service Eastern Region Headquarters watch/warnings map

NRCC Drought Page which features the US Drought Monitor map (updated every Thursday)

Stalk Rots in Field Corn

Ken Wise
NYS IPM

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Stalk rot can cause the plant to die early—with lower grain or silage yields. Many different fungi can cause these rots. Stress or injury, whether by insect pests, hail, deer and bird damages, drought or soil saturation, lack of sunlight, extended cool weather, and infertile soil—all are rot provocateurs.

Anthracnose stalk rot symptoms often show after tasselling as vertical, tan to reddish brown, water-soaked lesions (streaks) in the stalk rind. Lesions become large and dark brown to shiny black. If you see anthracnose leaf blight, check for anthracnose stalk rot—both diseases share the same causal agent.

Diplodia stalk rot symptoms appear as numerous black pycnidia (a saclike spore case) in the lower internodes of the stalk. The cases are black dots size of a pinhead or smaller. Look for a white mold on the stalks when weather is wet .

Fusarium stalk rot normally starts just after pollination, with symptoms appearing later in the season. When you cut open the stalk, the pith shows as a whitish to pink (salmon) color. Look also for distinctive brown streaks on the lower internodes.

Gibberella stalk rot shows first as leaves fade to a grayish-green. Stalks turn dark green to tan near their bases. The pith softens, turning reddish or pink.

Pythium stalk rot normally appears as a decay of the first internode above the soil. The pith will become soft, turn brown and appear water-soaked. Many times the stalk can twist and/ or lodge. Even though it may have lodged the plant will stay green for several weeks because the vascular tissue is not destroyed.
If you discover stalk rot diseases, make notes of the hybrid, tillage methods, rotation history, and planting date so you can avoid disease in the future.

Management practices and their effectiveness:

Corn Disease
(Stalk Rots)

Resistant Variety

Crop Rotation

Clean Plow Down of Residues

Fungicides

Anthracnose

1

1

1

4

All Others

2

3

3

4

 

As with most diseases that attack corn, if you can reduce stress on the plants you most likely can reduce the occurrence of these and other stalk rots. A sound fertility program based on soil testing is important for keeping corn healthy. Select disease-resistant hybrids, good standability—and adapted to your region. Some stalk rots can produce mycotoxins toxic to livestock. Consider having silage tested for mycotoxins if you had stalk rots this season. For more information on corn diseases, see Diseases of Corn Management Guide.

Western Bean Cutworm

Keith Waldron
NYS IPM

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Accumulated western bean cutworm moths captured per location as of 9.13.12

County Location Total WBC County Location Total WBC

Broome

Whitney Point

0

Livingston

Cuylerville

9

Cattaraugus

Olean

16

Livingston

Lima

57

Cayuga

Auburn

59

Madison

Kirkville

34

Cayuga

Aurora

29

Monroe

Churchville

35

Cayuga

King Ferry

1

Monroe

Hamlin

54

Chautauqua

Kennedy

149

Monroe

Spencerport

42

Chenango

Afton

14

Niagara

Lockport

30

Chenango

Sherburne

19

Oneida

Clinton

23

Clinton

Beekmantown

50

Oneida

Clinton

21

Clinton

Chazy

24

Onondaga

Baldwinsville

32

Cortland

Marathon

2

Onondaga

Tully

16

Cortland

Preble

81

Ontario

Farmington

2

Delaware

Oneonta

19

Ontario

Geneva

47

Delaware

Walton

34

Ontario

Hopewell

8

Dutchess

Millbrook

40

Ontario

Stanley

29

Erie

Eden Z

154

Orleans

Waterport

21

Essex

Westport

19

Otsego

Garrattsville

13

Essex

Willsboro

13

Schoharie

Middleburg

24

Franklin

Malone

140

Schuyler

Burdett

1

Genesee

Alexander

17

Schuyler

Valois

9

Genesee

Batavia

23

St.Lawrence

Madrid

301

Genesee

Batavia

43

Steuben

Avoca

23

Genesee

Leroy

41

Steuben

Wayland

34

Genesee

Stafford

16

Suffolk

Riverhead

1

Genesee

Stafford

91

Tioga

Owego

1

Green

 

27

Tioga

Owego

20

Herkimer

Little Falls

48

Tompkins

Varna

27

Jefferson

Ellisburg

193

Washington

 

7

Jefferson

Plessis

42

Wayne

Macedon

13

Jefferson

Sacketts Harbor

344

Wayne

Williamson

24

Lewis

Martinsburg

323

Wyoming

Attica

276

Livingston

Avon

48

Yates

Bellona

27

Livingston

Caledonia

28

Yates

PennYan

32

 

Counties highlighted in blue are dry bean production counties. Locations in red are dry bean monitoring sites funded by the NYS Dry Bean Association, other locations are funded in part from USDA eIPM and Northeaster Regional IPM Center grants. Thanks to the many volunteers who have been monitoring WBC traps all season. Without their dedication this data set would not be possible!

Clipboard Checklist

Keith Waldron
NYS IPM

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General:
* Emergency contact information ("911", local hospital, Chem. Spill emergency contact, other) posted in central posting area
* Maintain crop records by field, including variety, planting date, pesticides used, nutrient inputs including manure, etc.
* Watch for any patches of herbicide resistant weeds, weed escapes

Corn:
* Monitor fields for plant vigor, growth stage, late season pest issues (European corn borer, foliar diseases, stalk rots, ear molds, nutritional deficiencies, vertebrate damage)
* Monitor for weeds, note presence of "who", "how many" and "where"
* Monitor reproductive stage corn fields for foliar diseases, stalk standability issues, corn ear damage (insect pests and diseases)
* Prepare storage areas to accept upcoming silage harvest

Alfalfa & Hay:
* Monitor alfalfa seedings for weeds, insects & diseases.
* Check regrowth of established alfalfa stands for potato leafhopper, weed and disease problems.
* Storage areas cleaned and ready to accept incoming harvest

Soybeans:
* Evaluate stand growth, development and condition
* Monitor fields for soybean aphid, foliar diseases, white mold, natural enemies, defoliating insects, spider mites, bean leaf beetles and weed escapes

Dairy Livestock Barn Fly Management:
* Sanitation, sanitation, sanitation - clean animal resting areas, feed throughs, minimize source of moist organic matter i.e. fly breeding areas in barn and in adjacent animal loafing yard
* Check water sources, drainage, roof gutters for leaks and potential overspill
* Continue fly monitoring: install "3X5" index card fly speck monitoring cards throughout barn
* Install/refresh/replenish as needed: fly tapes, insecticide baits, natural enemies (parasitoids)

Dairy Livestock Pasture Fly Management:
* Monitor animals for presence of pasture fly pests. Treatment guidelines: Horn flies (50 per dairy animal side, 100 per side for beef cattle), face flies(10 per animal face), stable flies (10 per 4 legs). See IPM's Livestock page.
* Consider installing biting fly traps to reduce horse, deer and stable fly populations.

Storage:
* Check temperature, moisture, pest status of bin stored small grains
* Keep areas around storage bins and silos clean and mowed
* Check areas around storage bins and silos for vertebrate tunneling
* Check temperature of recently baled hay in hay mow

Equipment:
* Note any repairs needed for recently used equipment: tractors, tillage implements, planters, sprayers, etc. as they are cleaned and serviced.
* Service hay harvesting equipment as needed.
* Calibrate manure spreaders - maintain records on amount spread per field

PESTICIDE EMERGENCY NUMBERS
Emergency responder information on pesticide spills and accidents…
CHEMTREC - 800-424-9300

For pesticide information
National Pesticide Information Center: 800-858-7378

To Report Oil and Hazardous Material Spills in New York State
NYS Department of Environmental Conservation Spill Response - 800-457-7362 (in NYS), 518-457-7362 (outside NYS)

Poison Control Centers
Poison Control Centers nationwide -  800-222-1222

If you are unable to reach a Poison Control Center or obtain the information your doctor needs, the office of the NYS Pesticide Coordinator at Cornell University, 607-255-1866, may be able to assist you in obtaining such information.

Contact Information


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Keith Waldron: NYS Livestock and Field Crops IPM Coordinator
Phone: (315) 787 - 2432
Fax: (315) 787-2360
Email: jkw5@cornell.edu

Ken Wise: Eastern NYS IPM Area Educator: Field Crops and Livestock
Phone: (518) 434-1690
Fax: (518) 426-3316
Email: klw24@cornell.edu