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Weekly Field Crops Pest Report 2011

July 15, 2011, Volume 10 Number 11

  1. View from the Field
  2. Weather Outlook
  3. Western Bean Cutworm Trap Counts Still Very Low
  4. Dairy Cattle Pasture Fly IPM Webinar by eOrganic Now Available On-Line
  5. Soybean Defoliators: Do They Do Damage?
  6. Clipboard Checklist
  7. Mark Your Calendars
  8. Contact Information

View from the Field

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I taught field meetings on dairy pasture fly IPM this week in Clinton and Essex Counties. We found cattle were being attacked by large numbers of stable flies. Hay feeders where the hay comes in contact with the soil along with moisture is prime habitat for stable flies as seen below. Make sure you clean up hay feeding areas so the hay is not mixing in the soil creating a problem for stable flies on cattle. This was most likely one of the major contributions to the high number of stable flies on the farms.

fly meetiong

We counted as many as 20 stable flies on one leg of a dairy cow. The average was about 30 to 40 flies/animal. The action threshold is 10 stable flies per 4 legs of the animal. As you may know stable flies give a painful bite and think of having 30 of them on the legs at the same time. That is a lot of biting ....

There were many horn flies on the cattle on pasture. Horn flies give a painful bite trying to feed on the blood of the cow. They normally infest the back and side of the animal. When it is very hot they will go under the belly area. We estimated that one cow had over 200 flies while the one next had none. For some reason horn flies seem to select certain animals and not others. Over all there were about an average of 60 flies per side on the dairy animals on pasture. The action threshold is 50 horn flies per side on dairy.

horn flies

Weather Outlook

July 14, 2011

Jessica Rennells, Northeast Region Climate Center, Cornell University

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Temperatures have been warm over the past week at 0 to 6 degrees above normal. July continues to be dry with a large portion of the state receiving only half an inch or less of rain. Parts of the Hudson Valley, Mohawk Valley, and Eastern Plateau had half to 2 inches of rain. The base 50 growing degree days ranged from 125 to 175.

High pressure will keep dry weather in the forecast for the next few days. A front will move through late Monday into Tuesday bringing some showers and thunderstorms.

Today will be sunny with highs in the 70's and some low 80's, very similar to Wednesday's weather. Overnight lows will be in the 50's.

Friday will be foggy in the morning turning sunny with highs in the mid 70's to mid 80's. Lows will be in the 50's.

Saturday will have continues sunshine with highs in the mid to upper 80's. Lows will be in the upper 50's to mid 60's. There is a slight possibility of showers in far western NY.

Sunday will be sunny with highs in the mid to upper 80's. Lows will be warmer in the mid to upper 60s'.

Monday hot weather continues with highs in the upper 80's reaching into the 90's with a chance for showers and thunderstorms. Lows will be warm again in upper 60's.

Tuesday's temperatures will be in the mid to upper 80's with a chance for showers and thunderstorms as a cold front moves through. Tuesday night will be in the upper 60's and low 70's.

Wednesday's temperatures will be in upper 80's and low 90's with a chance for showers and thunderstorms. Lows will be in the mid 60's.

The five day precipitation amounts will range from a tenth to half of an inch. The 8-14 day outlook is showing above normal temperatures for the whole state. The precipitation outlook is below normal for the eastern portion of the state, and above normal for Erie, Chautauqua, and Cattaraugus counties.

Western Bean Cutworm Trap Counts Still Very Low

Keith Waldron,
NYS IPM

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A few more Western Bean Cutworm moths were caught this week in Delaware Cty (1, Walton), Cayuga Cty (Aurora, 2), Schuyler Cty (Burdette, 1), and Essex Cty (Beekmantown, 5). Last weeks catches included (Monroe Cty (Honeoye Falls, 1, Livingston Cty (Lima, 1) and Beekmantown (Essex Cty, 4). Our running total is 15 WBC moths collected so far this season. It is interesting to see where the moths are being collected. It should be noted: Our NY trap catch numbers are still quite low and do not indicate any cause for concern.

WBC catch information is also trickling in from PA (< 20 WBC in their 40 traps), Ohio (59 moths), Wisc. collected WBC in 12% of their 140 traps and Ontario is also collecting WBC moths. Western Ontario (Bothwell) is actually seeing some sites with WBC damage to corn.

Our NY WBC trapping program will continue through August. Stay tuned for more information.

Dairy Cattle Pasture Fly IPM Webinar by eOrganic Now Available On-Line

Keith Waldron,
NYS IPM

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If left uncontrolled, external arthropod pests such as flies, lice, mites, and grubs on organic dairy farms can negatively impact animal health and production on organic dairy farms. Organic Integrated Pest Management (IPM) for these and other pests begins with proper identification of pests, understanding their biology, and realizing their importance in the production process. Once identified, pest populations are monitored and assessed to determine if the population requires management to reduce potential damage.

In this eOrganic webinar Dr. Donald Rutz and Keith Waldron of the New York State IPM Program address several fly pests that attack cattle while they are out on pasture, especially horn, face, stable, horse and deer flies. Each has distinctive habits, life histories, and management options.

The webinar can be found at our Livestock section, and also
eXtension and YouTube.

Soybean Defoliators: Do They Do Damage?

Ken Wise,
NYS IPM

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Japanese beetle, Mexican bean beetle and bean leaf beetle are the main defoliators of soybeans in NYS. While they are minor pests, defoliation of soybeans sends up many red flags by growers. The question normally is how much leaf defoliation is too much in soybeans? The good thing is that soybeans can withstand much defoliation without losing yield. The soybean defoliation threshold is 35 percent of leaf area eaten or missing from V1 to just before bloom. During blooming through pod-filling stages, the threshold is 20 percent defoliation. The following pictures are a guide that depict 10, 20, 30 and 40 percent defoliation:

soybean defoliation

Clipboard Checklist

Keith Waldron
NYS IPM

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General
*Emergency contact information ("911", local hospital, Chem. Spill emergency contact, other?) posted in central posting area
*Maintain crop records by field, including variety, planting date, pesticides used, nutrient inputs including manure, etc.
*Walk fields to check crop condition, growth, and emergence. Look for signs of vertebrate pests (birds, ground hogs, deer, etc.).
*Mow around farm buildings to minimize rodent and other pest habitat
*Begin grain bin and auger clean up and preparations for storage.

Alfalfa and Grass Hay:
*Monitor alfalfa for crop condition, watch re-growth for potato leafhopper and diseases.
*Evaluate alfalfa seedings for weeds, potato leafhopper & diseases.

Small Grains:
*Monitor winter grain fields for moisture and timing harvest.
* Prepare storage bins, receiving areas and equipment for grain harvest.

Field Corn:
* Monitor for crop growth stage and condition
* Monitor for weeds escapes, noting presence of "who", "how many" and "where"
* Mid season corn pests: European corn borer, armyworm, birds, other vertebrates

Soybeans:
* Monitor for crop growth stage and condition
* Monitor for weed escapes, soybean aphid, foliar and systemic diseases

Pastures:
*Check and mend fences as needed.
*Check crop growth
*Check for presence of undesirable plant species harmful to livestock.
*Review/Plan rotation system

Cattle on Pasture:
*Monitor animals for presence of face flies, horn flies and stable flies. Action guidelines: face flies (average 10 per animal face), horn flies (average 50 / dairy, 200 / beef cattle per animal side), stable flies average 10 per animal (all four legs)
*Check feed bunk / water source locations for signs of stable fly breeding (moist undisturbed organic matter spilled feed, round bales, etc.), minimize source of moist organic matter i.e. fly breeding areas in barn and in adjacent animal loafing yard
*Check paddocks for forage quality / quantity, rotate as appropriate
*Check paddocks for vegetation poisonous to livestock
*Consider use of fly traps to help reduce pasture fly (deer, horse and stable) populations

Dairy Cattle Barn Fly Management:
*Monitor animals and barn area for house fly, stable fly and other pest management needs including presence of rodents and birds.
*Check facilities for favorable fly breeding conditions: (organic matter + moisture): leaks in watering systems, roof gutters for leaks and potential overspill, drainage,
*Sanitation, sanitation, sanitation - clean animal resting areas, feed troughs, minimize source of moist organic matter i.e. fly breeding areas in barn and in adjacent animal loafing yard
* Continue fly monitoring: install "3X5" index card fly speck monitoring cards throughout barn
*Use, replenish, replace fly management materials: sticky fly tapes/ribbons, insecticide baits, natural enemies (parasitoids), fly population monitoring (3 x 5) spot cards
*Consider purchase and release of Muscidifurax raptor and/or M. raptorellus natural enemies of house and stable fly pupae.

PESTICIDE EMERGENCY NUMBERS

Emergency responder information on pesticide spills and accidents CHEMTREC:  800-424-9300

For pesticide information:

National Pesticide Information Center: 800-858-7378

To Report Oil and Hazardous Material Spills in New York State: NYS Department of Environmental Conservation Spill Response: 800-457-7362 (in NYS); 518-457-7362 (outside NYS)

Poison Control Centers: Poison Control Centers nationwide: 800-222-1222

If you are unable to reach a Poison Control Center or obtain the information your doctor needs, the office of the NYS Pesticide Coordinator at Cornell University, 607-255-1866, may be able to assist you in obtaining such information.

Mark Your Calendars


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Dates of Pasture Fly IPM Meetings

Aug 16: Kinderhook Farm, 1958 Columbia County Road 21, Valatie, NY 4:00 pm. Columbia County Cornell Cooperative Extension: Mick Bessire, rgb8@cornell.edu, (518)828-3346

Aug. 17: Location to be Announced, 6:00 pm. Dutchess County Cornell Cooperative Extension: Jennifer Fimbel, jlf20@cornell.edu, (845) 677-8223

Aug, 29: Golden Acres Charolais Farm, 756 State Route 143 in Westerlo, NY, 6:00pm. Albany County Cornell Cooperative Extension: Tom Gallagher, tjg3@cornell.edu, 518-765-3500

Contact Information


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Keith Waldron: NYS Livestock and Field Crops IPM Coordinator
Phone: (315) 787 - 2432
Fax: (315) 787-2360
Email: jkw5@cornell.edu

Ken Wise: Eastern NYS IPM Area Educator: Field Crops and Livestock
Phone: (518) 434-1690
Fax: (518) 426-3316
Email: klw24@cornell.edu