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Weekly Field Crops Pest Report 2011

July 1, 2011, Volume 10 Number 9

  1. View from the Field
  2. Weather Outlook
  3. Got Dung Beetles?
  4. Western Bean Cutworm Moths have arrived
  5. Clipboard Checklist
  6. Mark Your Calendars
  7. Contact Information

View from the Field

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We had a pasture fly IPM meeting with Aaron Gabriel in Washington County last Thursday. We had a great turnout of 13 producers and 2 veterinarians. The host farm is an organic dairy producer and there were 10 other organic producers.

pasture fly meeting

Photo Taken By Aaron Gabriel

Horn flies, face flies and stable flies are the 3 main pasture flies causing cattle issues in the fields. At this farm there were a lot of stable flies. Prime habitat for stable fly breeding is where grass/hay comes in contact with the soil. As seen in the following photo this habitat was plentiful.

grass/hay soil contact

Photo Taken By Aaron Gabriel

On the plus side, there were also many dung beetles in the manure pats. The following photo shows holes created by dung beetles on the top of a manure pat. More on dung beetles see article below.

holes in cow pat made by dung beetles

Pasture fly IPM meetings are being held across NYS this year. Here are some dates and contacts for a meeting near you!

Dates and Locations of Pasture Fly IPM Meetings

July 6: 2:00 3:15 pm, Fly Management in the Organic Dairy Pasture. Free and open to the public. Advance registration is required.

July 11: Sam Dwyer Farm, 227 Duquette Rd in West Chazy, 1:00 pm. Clinton County Cornell Cooperative Extension: Peter Hagar phh7@cornell.edu (518)561-7450 and Extension: Anita Deming, ald6@cornell.edu, (518) 9624810

July 12: Grassland Dairy, Brent Tillotson & family, 6350 Sparks Rd, Pavilion, NY 12:00pm to 3:00pm. NW Dairy, Livestock and Field Crops Team: Cathy Wallace, cfw8@cornell.edu (585) 343-3040 x138

July 12: Fred Pereau's Farm in Port Henry, 1:00 pm. Essex County Cornell Cooperative Extension: Anita Deming, ald6@cornell.edu, (518) 962 4810

Aug 16: Kinderhook Farm, 1958 Columbia County Road 21, Valatie, NY 4:00 pm. Columbia County Cornell Cooperative Extension: Mick Bessire, rgb8@cornell.edu, (518)828-3346

Aug. 17: Location to be Announced, 6:00 pm. Dutchess County Cornell Cooperative Extension: Jennifer Fimbel, jlf20@cornell.edu, (845) 677-8223

Aug, 29: Golden Acres Charolais Farm, 756 State Route 143 in Westerlo, NY, 6:00pm. Albany County Cornell Cooperative Extension: Tom Gallagher, tjg3@cornell.edu, 518-765-3500

Weather Outlook

June 30, 2011

Jessica Rennells, Northeast Region Climate Center, Cornell University

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The temperatures were 0 to 3 degrees above normal for most of the state. Precipitation ranged widely from only 0.01 inches to over 3 inches. The heaviest rain was in the Northern Plateau, Mohawk Valley, and northern Eastern Plateau from thunderstorms. The base 50 growing degrees ranged from 100 to 150.

Today high pressure will bring sunny skies and warmer temperatures into the mid 70's and low 80's. Overnight temperatures will drop into the mid 40's to mid 50's.

Friday will be sunny with temperatures in the upper 70's to mid 80's. Lows will range from the low 50's to low 60's.

Saturday's highs will be throughout the 80's nearing 90 with a possibility of showers and thunderstorms as frontal systems pass through. Lows will be in the upper 50's and low 60's.

Sunday's temperatures will be throughout the 80's with showers & thunderstorms possible again. Lows will be in the 60's.

Monday's highs will be in the low to mid 80's with showers & thunderstorms possible. Overnight temperatures will be in the low 60's.

Tuesday will have highs will be in the low to mid 80s with lows in the low to mid 60's.

Wednesday's temperatures will be in the low to mid 80's with showers possible. Overnight temperatures will be warm in the mid 60's.

The five day precipitation amounts will range from a tenth to half an inch. The 8-14 day outlook is showing above normal temperatures for the southern border of the state and above normal precipitation for just southwest corner of the state.

Got Dung Beetles?

Ken Wise,
NYS IPM

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Face flies and horn flies, two key fly pests attacking cattle on pasture, both complete their egg, larval and pupal stages in cow manure. These two fly pests are, however, frequently not alone about 450 arthropod species have been reported to inhabit cow pats. Why dig through manure to find dung beetles? Dung beetles are very important insects that help decompose cattle manure and aide in recycling nutrients in pastures. Dung beetles compete with other organisms like pest flies for resources within the manure, thus limiting successful pasture fly development. Dung beetles help recycle the manure back into the soil providing nutrients for the pasture grasses to continue to grow and produce forage. Having a good population of dung beetles is an indication of a healthy pasture. There are three types of dung beetles that can occupy a dung pat:

Rollers (telecoprids) Geotrupes species, form balls of manure which they push from the pat to bury as brood balls

Tunnelers (paracoprids) Onthophagus species are tunnelers that consume the pat and burrow beneath it to bury brood balls.

Dwellers (endocoprids) Aphodius species, consume the manure as they tunnel within the dung pat and oviposit eggs in the manure or surrounding soil. Most dung beetles found in NY are dwellers.

producer dung beetles on manure

Keith Waldron showing producer dung beetles in manure on pasture

Some feed-through insecticides can have detrimental effects on manure inhabiting arthropods. These materials are not always completely metabolized in the body and are dispelled into the manure pat. To enhance dung beetle populations try to select fly control methods and products that help preserve dung beetles in your pastures.

Western Bean Cutworm Moths have arrived

Keith Waldron,
NYS IPM

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As mentioned in last weeks WPR, we have a statewide effort on the lookout for western bean cutworm moths. Western bean cutworm (WBC) is an emerging pest in NY, with the potential to cause substantial damage to corn, Zea mays and beans, Phaseolus vulgaris.

Researchers in Ontario Canada and Indiana reported first WBC trap catches during the week of June 23 in a few of their monitoring stations. This week WBC moths were captured in New York and Pennsylvania. In NY, WBC moths were collected one each in Ithaca (Tompkins County) and Kennedy (Chautauqua county). This was about the time of our first WBC collections last year and while numbers of WBC collected are small, the finds signal that the 2011 WBC season has begun.

Economically important infestations of this insect are not expected in 2011.  The question remains, however, will the insect be found again this season?, where?, in what numbers? and what will it mean to our producers?

Our NY trapping program will continue through August. Results of the regional trapping network will soon be posted at the Sweet Corn Pheromone Trap Network Report (ECB, CEW, FAW, WBC), and Pennsylvania State University's Pest Watch website. Stay tuned for more information.

Clipboard Checklist

Keith Waldron
NYS IPM

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General
*Emergency contact information ("911", local hospital, Chem. Spill emergency contact, other?) posted in central posting area
*Maintain crop records by field, including variety, planting date, pesticides used, nutrient inputs including manure, etc.
*Walk fields to check crop condition, growth, and emergence. Look for signs of vertebrate pests (birds, ground hogs, deer, etc.).
*Mow around farm buildings to minimize rodent and other pest habitat
*Begin grain bin and auger clean up and preparations for storage.

Alfalfa and Grass Hay:
*Monitor alfalfa for crop condition, watch re-growth for potato leafhopper and diseases.
*Evaluate alfalfa seedings for weeds, insects (potato leafhopper) & diseases.

Small Grains:
*Monitor winter wheat for foliar & grain head diseases, Fusarium Head Blight incidence
*Monitor winter grain fields for crop growth stage, signs and symptoms of diseases, weed pressure, insects (cereal leaf beetle)

Field Corn:
*Post emergence: Determine corn plant populations, monitor for emergence problems, weeds, noting presence of "who", "how many" and "where"
*Early season corn pests: seedling blights, seed corn maggot, white grub, wireworm, black cutworm, slugs, birds
*Adjust post emergence weed control actions

Soybeans:
*Post emergence: Determine plant populations, monitor for germination and emergence problems, monitor for weeds, noting presence of "who", "how many" and "where"
*Monitor for soybean aphid

Pastures:
*Check and mend fences as needed.
*Check crop growth
*Check for presence of undesirable plant species harmful to livestock.
*Review/Plan rotation system

Equipment:
*Arrange for custom weed / disease management or check your own application or cultivator equipment for readiness or need for repairs.
*Check nozzles, pumps, etc., recalibrate pesticide application equipment regularly before use.
*Calibrate manure spreaders - maintain records on amount spread per field

Cattle on Pasture:
*Monitor animals for presence of face flies, horn flies and stable flies. Action guidelines: face flies (average 10 per animal face), horn flies (average 50 / dairy, 200 / beef cattle per animal side), stable flies average 10 per animal (all four legs)
*Check feed bunk / water source locations for signs of stable fly breeding (moist undisturbed organic matter spilled feed, round bales, etc.), minimize source of moist organic matter i.e. fly breeding areas in barn and in adjacent animal loafing yard
*Check paddocks for forage quality / quantity, rotate as appropriate
*Check paddocks for vegetation poisonous to livestock
*Consider use of fly traps to help reduce deer, horse and stable fly populations

Dairy Cattle Barn Fly Management:
*Monitor animals and barn area for house fly, stable fly and other pest management needs including presence of rodents and birds.

*Check facilities for favorable fly breeding conditions: (organic matter + moisture): leaks in watering systems, roof gutters for leaks and potential overspill, drainage,

*Sanitation, sanitation, sanitation - clean animal resting areas, feed troughs, minimize source of moist organic matter i.e. fly breeding areas in barn and in adjacent animal loafing yard
* Continue fly monitoring: install "3X5" index card fly speck monitoring cards throughout barn

*Use, replenish, replace fly management materials: sticky fly tapes/ribbons, insecticide baits, natural enemies (parasitoids), fly population monitoring (3 x 5) spot cards

*Consider purchase and release of Muscidifurax raptor and/or M. raptorellus natural enemies of house and stable fly pupae.


PESTICIDE EMERGENCY NUMBERS

Emergency responder information on pesticide spills and accidents CHEMTREC:  800-424-9300

For pesticide information:

National Pesticide Information Center: 800-858-7378

To Report Oil and Hazardous Material Spills in New York State: NYS Department of Environmental Conservation Spill Response: 800-457-7362 (in NYS); 518-457-7362 (outside NYS)

Poison Control Centers: Poison Control Centers nationwide: 800-222-1222

If you are unable to reach a Poison Control Center or obtain the information your doctor needs, the office of the NYS Pesticide Coordinator at Cornell University, 607-255-1866, may be able to assist you in obtaining such information.

Mark Your Calendars


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July 6th, 2011 Fly Management in the Organic Dairy Pasture eOrganic Webinar
Donald Rutz, Keith Waldron, NYS IPM Program

July 8 Seed Growers Field Day, NYSIP Foundation Seed Barn, Ithaca, NY (791 Dryden Road, Route 366)

July 13-- Weed Science Field Day, Thompson Research Farm, Freeville, NY (morning program)

July 13-- Weed Science Field Day, Musgrave Research Farm, 1256 Poplar Ridge Rd., Aurora, NY (2:00pm - 5:00pm)

July 14-- Aurora Farm Field Day, Musgrave Research Farm, 1256 Poplar Ridge Rd., Aurora, NY (9:00am-3:00pm)

Contact Information


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Keith Waldron: NYS Livestock and Field Crops IPM Coordinator
Phone: (315) 787 - 2432
Fax: (315) 787-2360
Email: jkw5@cornell.edu

Ken Wise: Eastern NYS IPM Area Educator: Field Crops and Livestock
Phone: (518) 434-1690
Fax: (518) 426-3316
Email: klw24@cornell.edu