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Weekly Field Crops Pest Report 2011

June 11, 2011, Volume 10 Number 6

  1. View from the Field
  2. Weather Outlook
  3. Late Planted Corn and Weed Control
  4. Brown Marmorated Stink Bug—an Unwelcome Newcomer to New York
  5. Soybean Aphid 2011?
  6. Fusarium Head Blight Update
  7. Growing Degree Days
  8. Clipboard Checklist
  9. Mark Your Calendars
  10. Contact Information

View from the Field

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Reports suggest that potato leafhopper is present across the state now. As temperatures warm potato leafhopper populations have the potential to increase very quickly. Make sure you are scouting for them once a week. 
 
Black cutworm is still being found in corn fields across NY. Watch for cut plants in the field. This year there is potential for damage since other parts of the country have experienced high populations of black cutworm.
 
Alfalfa weevil is still hanging around and potentially causing problems in second cutting. There are some reports that alfalfa weevil are close to economic threshold in alfalfa re-growth after first cutting.
 
Mike Stanyard reports finding winged soybean aphids on V2 stage soybeans. Soybean aphids tend to be a problem every other year. This is the "other" year, meaning that we expect soybean aphid could be an issue this year. Watch fields closely for this insect pest. 

Mike Stanyard also reports that gray garden slugs have been found in some high residue fields and may be a problem in emerging soybeans. There at levels that slug bait may be use to control them.
 
While scouting the Cornell Research Farm in Valatie I came across an interesting beneficial insect. It is called the Red Milkweed Beetle (Tetraopes tetraophthalmus). It is part of the longhorn beetle family (Cerambycidae). This insect can feed on the poisonous milk weed like monarch butterfly larvae. They can sequester the poison as a defense mechanism from other predators. Plus, they play a small role in controlling the weed!

red milkweed beetle

Weather Outlook

June 9, 2011

Jessica Rennells, Northeast Region Climate Center, Cornell University

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The whole state has seen temperatures ranging from 0 to 3 degrees above normal.  Precipitation has been half an inch or less for most of the state.  Part of western NY had between half and one inch.  The base 50 growing degree days have ranged from 50 to 125.  We are behind last year at this same time, but still ahead of normal.
 
Today (6.9.11) will be hot with highs throughout the 80's to near 90.  Showers & thunderstorms are likely as a cold front moves through.  Overnight lows will range from some upper 40's in northeast NY to low 60's with possible showers. Friday's highs will be in the 70's, noticeably cooler and more seasonable.  Lows will range from low 40's to near 60. Saturday temperatures will be in the low to mid 70's.  Another low pressure system will bring showers and thunderstorms Saturday into Sunday.  Lows will be in the mid to upper 50's. Sunday highs will be throughout the 70's with showers & thunderstorms likely.   Overnight temperatures will be in the mid 50's to near 60. Monday highs will again be throughout the 70's with some showers possible as they move out of the state.  Lows will be in the mid to upper 50's. Tuesday's highs will be in the mid to upper 70's with a slight chance of some showers.  Lows will be in the mid 50's. Wednesday's temperatures will be throughout the 70's with possible showers.  Lows will be in the mid to upper 50's.
 
The five day precipitation amounts will range from .75 to 1.25".   The 8-14 day outlook is showing above normal temperatures for the southern edge of the state and above normal precipitation for all of the state.

Late Planted Corn and Weed Control

Mike Hunter, Field Crop and Ag. Program Leader Educator, Jefferson County CCE

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A wet start to month of May led to a delayed start of the corn planting season.  Wet field conditions soon after planting likely delayed or prevented many of the planned pre-emergence herbicide applications. 
 
Early season weed control is one of the key ingredients for optimum corn yields.  This season you need to make corn weed control a priority because there is a good chance that you already experienced delayed corn planting.  Warm temperatures and wet soil conditions provide an ideal environment for weeds to germinate quickly and begin to compete with the corn.  Corn growers need to really keep a close eye on both the growth stage of the corn and the size of the weeds in fields that have yet to be sprayed with an herbicide.  Regardless of the type of corn grown, the stage of growth of the corn and the weeds present at time of application will influence your herbicide selection. 
 
Glyphosate resistant (Roundup Ready) corn should be treated with glyphosate (i.e. Roundup PowerMax, Durango DMA, Touchdown Total or other glyphosate products) when the weeds are 2-4 inches tall.  Just because it is glyphosate resistant corn does not mean that you can make a late herbicide application without affecting the corn yield.  If you grow glyphosate resistant corn you should always consider adding another herbicide with soil residual activity to provide season long weed control. 

Here is a list of herbicides with soil residual activity that are commonly tank mixed with glyphosate for use with early post-emergence applications on glyphosate resistant corn hybrids:  Bullet, G-Max Lite, Bicep Lite II Magnum, Cinch ATZ Lite, Lumax, Lexar, Prowl 3.3, Pendimax 3.3, atrazine, Resolve Q. 
 
Halex GT (a pre mix of Touchdown Total, Calliso and Dual II Magnum) is also a very commonly used herbicide in glyphosate resistant corn programs.  There is usually no need to include another herbicide in the tank mix when using Halex GT.  If yellow nutsedge is emerged at the time of application in a glyphosate resistant corn situation, consider adding Permit or Yukon to the glysphosate tank mix. 
 
The herbicide recommendations for glyphosate resistant corn are a little more "user friendly" than conventional corn.  Please understand that I am not suggesting that glyphosate resistant corn is better than conventional corn hybrids.  There are still many good post emergence corn herbicides available on the market for use in conventional corn.  If you are in a situation where you have conventional corn hybrids and the corn (and weeds) have emerged it is critical that you select the right herbicide.  Again, there are several good options for early or total post-emergence weed control in conventional corn. 

If you hire a custom applicator to treat your corn acres, stay in close contact them and keep them up to date on your planting progress.  The custom applicators in our area cover a lot of acres and are very efficient; however, they, too, are at the mercy of the weather conditions.  Remember, you can plant corn on windy days but their sprayers sit idle on these days.  When the custom applicator arrives at the farm take the time to show them the fields that need to be treated and make sure that you discuss with them your weed control options for the current situation.
 
It is important to read and follow all label directions prior to the application of any of any herbicide.  

 

Brown Marmorated Stink Bug—an Unwelcome Newcomer to New York

Keith Waldron
NYS IPM

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The "Brown Marmorated Stink Bug," Halyomorpha halys (Stål), was accidentally introduced into Allentown, PA around 1996 from China or Japan. The species was first documented in NY in the Hudson Valley Region in 2008. The current size or distribution of this pest in NY is not known, but reports of sightings across NY and Pennsylvania increased during 2010.
The Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (BMSB) can be an "equal opportunity offender" that not only feeds on a wide range of fruits, vegetables, and other host plants including peaches, apples, green beans, soybeans, sweet and field corn cherry, raspberries, and pears, but can also be a problem for homeowners. During the fall the insect tends to congregate and can invade homes and structures seeking shelter to overwinter (think multispotted Asian ladybug and cluster flies). BMSB can be active in the field from late April through early September. Damage to host plants from the BMSB is typically small necrotic areas but ranges from leaf stippling, cat facing on tree fruits, seed loss, and transmission of plant pathogens. Oh yes, the insect's name is descriptive for a reason…. When disturbed or threatened the insect can produce a noxious odor as a defense mechanism.
The BMSB has, to date, not been an economic problem in field crops in NY. This insect has, however, caused potential concern for field corn and soybean producers in other states to our south and is currently a focus for a statewide monitoring program being conducted in NY and other states by a number of fruit and vegetable field staff. We will provide periodic updates as we learn more about this pest during the 2011 season.

In NY, the leading edge of the BMSB invasion appears to be in the Hudson Valley Region, along with Metropolitan NY and Long Island, although there have been sightings in Erie and Wyoming counties in western NY. Monitoring efforts are underway to document to population spread of this new pest within NY and the region. Currently known regional distribution maps and background information including webinar archives can be found at: ENY Brown Marmorated Stink Bug Project.

See also Penn State University's The Brown Marmorated Stink Bug website.

For pictures, resources and more information see:
Brown Marmorated Stink Bug Information (NE IPM Center)

Monitoring for the Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (Rutgers University)

Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (Pennsylvania State University)

Soybean Aphid 2011?

Keith Waldron
NYS IPM

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Soybean aphid (SBA) problems have typically been relatively isolated across NY since their initial introduction in 2000-2001. Field monitoring for this pest is, however, recommended since at least some fields reach threshold numbers every year requiring treatment to avoid losses. Since their arrival in NY in 2001, soybean aphids have tended to be a more problematic every other year, every odd numbered year to be more correct. 2011 has the potential to be a year to watch soybean fields closely for this insect.  The first SBA's of the season were found in central NY earlier this week on V2 stage soybeans. No cause to panic... but remember to check fields this summer for soybean aphid.
 
What to look for: Check the under surface of leaves for presence of very small aphids. If present, the aphids are usually seen in small clusters near the leaf veins. They are tiny, 1/16" long at their largest, with distinctive black cornicles (tail pipes).  Soybean aphids are the only aphids to successfully colonize soybean plants. These aphids may or may not have wings.
 
We'll have more updates on soybean aphid as the season continues.

Fusarium Head Blight Update

Gary Bergstrom
Department of Plant Pathology, Cornell University

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Most New York winter wheat is either flowering or past flowering at this time.  For all but a few fields, the time for foliar fungicide application has passed.  Depending on location, forecast risk of severe Fusarium head blight was low to moderate for crops that flowered before June 3, and mostly low for those that flowered since June 3.  Local microenvironments may have been more or less favorable.  Current risk continues to be low.  There is value in continuing to consult the risk prediction map tool to assess the likelihood of Fusarium infection during the early grain filling period.  We are accustomed to seeing low to moderate levels of vomitoxin contamination in plump grains as the result of infections during moist weather during grain filling.  Late infections often do not result in visual symptoms of Fusarium head blight, yet toxin may be present.

For more details, go to the FHB Risk Assessment Tool.

Growing Degree Days

Ken Wise,
NYS IPM

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CURRENT Accumulated Growing degree days (48F Base):

March 1 - May 25, 2011

Location
Base 48 F
Base 50 F
Chazy
445
364
Geneva
603
511
Highland
724
619
Hudson
666
563
Ithaca
614
520
Watertown
470
390
*Indicates missing data
Data from NEWA

Clipboard Checklist

Keith Waldron
NYS IPM

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General 
*Emergency contact information ("911", local hospital, Chem. Spill emergency contact, other?) posted in central posting area
*Maintain crop records by field, including variety, planting date, pesticides used, nutrient inputs including manure, etc.
*Walk fields to check crop condition, growth, and emergence. Look for signs of vertebrate pests (birds, ground hogs, deer, etc.).
*Mow around farm buildings to minimize rodent and other pest habitat
 
Alfalfa and Grass Hay:
*Monitor alfalfa for crop condition, watch re-growth for alfalfa weevil, potato leafhopper, and diseases.
*Evaluate alfalfa seedings for weeds, insects (potato leafhopper) & diseases.
 
Small Grains:
*Monitor winter grain fields for crop growth stage, signs and symptoms of diseases, weed pressure, insects (cereal leaf beetle)
*Monitor winter wheat for foliar & grain head diseases, potential for Fusarium Head Blight

Field Corn:
*Post emergence: Determine corn plant populations, monitor for emergence problems, weeds, noting presence of "who", "how many" and "where"
* Early season corn pests: seedling blights, seed corn maggot, white grub, wireworm, black cutworm, slugs, birds
*Adjust post emergence weed control actions
 
Soybeans:
*Post emergence: Determine plant populations, monitor for germination and emergence problems, monitor for weeds, noting presence of "who", "how many" and "where"
* Monitor for soybean aphid
 
Pastures:
*Check and mend fences as needed.
*Check crop growth
*Check for presence of undesirable plant species harmful to livestock.
*Review/Plan rotation system
 
Equipment:
*Arrange for custom weed / disease management or check your own application or cultivator equipment for readiness or need for repairs.
*Check nozzles, pumps, etc., recalibrate pesticide application equipment regularly before use.
*Calibrate manure spreaders - maintain records on amount spread per field
 
Storage:
*Check forage allocation and anticipate feed program adjustments as forages from previous year are used up
*Plan where forages should be stored for optimum allocation next feeding season
 
Cattle on Pasture:
*Monitor animals for presence of face flies, horn flies and stable flies. Action guidelines: face flies (average 10 per animal face), horn flies (average 50 / dairy, 200 / beef cattle per animal side), stable flies average 10 per animal  (all four legs)
*Check feed bunk / water source locations for signs of stable fly breeding (moist undisturbed organic matter – spilled feed, round bales, etc.), minimize source of moist organic matter i.e. fly breeding areas in barn and in adjacent animal loafing yard
*Check paddocks for forage quality / quantity, rotate as appropriate
*Check paddocks for vegetation poisonous to livestock
*Consider use of fly traps to help reduce deer, horse and stable fly populations
 
Dairy Cattle Barn Fly Management:
*Monitor animals and barn area for house fly, stable fly and other pest management needs including presence of rodents and birds.
*Check facilities for favorable fly breeding conditions: (organic matter + moisture): leaks in watering systems, roof gutters for leaks and potential overspill, drainage,
*Sanitation, sanitation, sanitation - clean animal resting areas, feed troughs, minimize source of moist organic matter i.e. fly breeding areas in barn and in adjacent animal loafing yard * Continue fly monitoring: install "3X5" index card fly speck monitoring cards throughout barn
*Use, replenish, replace fly management materials: sticky fly tapes/ribbons, insecticide baits, natural enemies (parasitoids), fly population monitoring (3 x 5) spot cards
*Consider purchase and release of Muscidifurax raptor and/or M. raptorellus natural enemies of house and stable fly pupae.

PESTICIDE EMERGENCY NUMBERS

Emergency responder information on pesticide spills and accidents CHEMTREC:  800-424-9300

For pesticide information:

National Pesticide Information Center: 800-858-7378

To Report Oil and Hazardous Material Spills in New York State: NYS Department of Environmental Conservation Spill Response: 800-457-7362 (in NYS); 518-457-7362 (outside NYS)

Poison Control Centers: Poison Control Centers nationwide: 800-222-1222

If you are unable to reach a Poison Control Center or obtain the information your doctor needs, the office of the NYS Pesticide Coordinator at Cornell University, 607-255-1866, may be able to assist you in obtaining such information.

Mark Your Calendars


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Cornell University's Aurora Farm Field Day, Musgrave Research Farm, 1256 Poplar Ridge Road, Aurora, NY, Thursday July 14, 2011. 10:00am-3:00pm, free registration begins at 9:00.
 
Aurora Farm Field Day will highlight research demonstrations and presentations of interest to the local farming community.  Details on program topics forthcoming.  

Cornell University's Weed Days – Wednesday, July 13th
Morning program at the Thompson Vegetable Farm in Freeville and afternoon program at the Musgrave Research Farm in Aurora. DEC and CCA credits available. 
 
For more information regarding these meetings, please contact Larissa Smith at lls14@cornell.edu or 607-255-2177

Contact Information


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Keith Waldron: NYS Livestock and Field Crops IPM Coordinator
Phone: (315) 787 - 2432
Fax: (315) 787-2360
Email: jkw5@cornell.edu

Ken Wise: Eastern NYS IPM Area Educator: Field Crops and Livestock
Phone: (518) 434-1690
Fax: (518) 426-3316
Email: klw24@cornell.edu