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Weekly Field Crops Pest Report 2010

September 17, 2010        Volume 9 Number 20

1. View from the Field

2. Weather Outlook September 16, 2010

3. Winter Wheat, Aphids and Yellow Dwarf Virus

4. White Mold in Soybeans

5. Clipboard Checklist

6. Contact Information

View from the Field


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There have been several reports of stalk rots and corn ear rots across the state this week.  For specific information on these diseases view the following issues of the weekly pest report:

Check for Stalk Rots

Check for Corn Ear Rots

Kevin Ganoe reports that soybean row spacing and white mold were major issues with his soybean TAg teams this season. Where there were 8 to 15 inch row spacing white mold was readily found and potentially reducing yields. Where there was 30 inch row spacing NO white mold was found. When the vegetation is too dense the level of moisture increases under the canopy and increases the risk of white mold. See article below on white mold in soybeans.

Barn fly issues: As daily temperatures begin to cool house and stable fly populations may increase in barns and other livestock facilities as these insects seek refuge from the colder weather. Use of sticky ribbons, fly tapes or insecticide baits may help reduce the adult breeding flies.

Weather Outlook September 16, 2010

Jessica Rennells
NOAA NE Regional Climate Center, Cornell University

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Last week temperatures ranged from 0 to 6 degrees below normal.   Precipitation ranged from .01 to 2 inches.   

The base 50 Growing Degree Days ranged from 25 to 75.  Almost the entire state is ahead of last year by over three weeks.  Compared to normal, most of the state is ahead by over three weeks.

Todays highs will be in throughout the 60s and into the low 70s.   A low pressure system moving across the state will bring rain and thunderstorms.  Tonights temperatures will be in the mid 40s to low 50s. Friday will be in the mid 50s to mid 60s with some showers possible in the morning as the system moves out.  Friday night will be in the upper 30s in northern NY to mid 40s. Saturday high pressure will bring sunny skies and highs in the low to mid 70s.  Lows will be in the mid 40s to low 50s. Sunday highs will be in the mid 60s to low 70s with a chance for scattered showers.  Overnight temperatures will be in the mid 40s to low 50s. Monday will be sunny and in the low to mid 60s.    Lows will be in the mid 40s. Tuesdays temperatures will be in the mid to upper 60s with a slight chance for scattered showers.  Lows will be throughout the 40s. Wednesdays highs will be in the upper 60s to mid 70s with lows ranging from the upper 40s to upper 50s.  There is a 50% chance for showers. The five day precipitation amounts will be 0.75 to 1.5 inches.   The 8-14 day outlook is showing normal temperatures and above normal precipitation for northern NY.

Winter Wheat, Aphids and Yellow Dwarf Virus

Ken Wise
NYS IPM

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Barley yellow dwarf virus, now know as yellow dwarf virus (YDV) in wheat is a serious disease across the country. This disease is transmitted by several species of aphids that infest wheat. When infected aphids feed on the plants they infect the wheat with the virus. Winter wheat that is infected in the fall does not show symptoms. Symptoms start to appear mid-spring as yellowing of leaves. One management strategy is to plant wheat after the Hessian fly free date in your region. This can limit the number of aphids entering the fall seeded winter wheat fields. Another management option is to plant a wheat variety that is resistant to YDV

White Mold in Soybeans


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Highly productive, dense stands of soybeans favor white mold development. The fungus survives from year to year in the soil as hard black pellets called sclerotia. Sclerotia of white mold must be present to cause the disease, though a small number of sclerotia on the soil surface can lead to significant outbreaks if wet, moist, cool conditions are present while plants are flowering. Under these favorable conditions, sclerotia will germinate and mushroom-like structures (apothecia) will form. The apothecia produce ascospores which spread by wind and splashing rain. Ascopsores require a nutrient source to grow, and soybean flowers serve as ideal locations. The fungal mycelia colonize dead flowers and the characteristic thick white moldy covering on stems and pods develops. Interspersed with the white mold on stems are the black sclerotia (see photos below for sclerotia). Plants may wilt and die as a result of infection. If white mold infection is late in the season, yield loss will not be as severe. Temperatures over 90 degrees will stop disease development. During harvest, the sclerotia on stems and pods may end up in the soil or residue, or may stay with harvested seed.

The following photo shows the white mold infection on a plant that is starting to wilt.

(photo by Mike Stanyard, NWNY Team)

A key to white mold management is to find strategies to prevent the build-up of the pathogen in a field. Rotation to crops other than soybean for at least 1 year (ideally 2 or more years) is recommended. Additionally, weed management practices that reduce weeds that serve as alternate host for white mold (for example lambs quarters and pigweed) will help to decrease build-up of the pathogen. It is also essential to avoid the planting of contaminated or infected seed, and to avoid the movement of infected soil with equipment. Varieties of soybeans that are tolerant or moderately resistant to white mold should be selected.

Sclerotia of white mold

 

Sclerotia of white mold on the plant

Clipboard Checklist

Keith Waldron
NYS IPM

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General:

  • Emergency contact information ("911", local hospital, Chem. Spill emergency contact, other?) posted in central posting area
  • Maintain crop records by field, including variety, planting date, pesticides used, nutrient inputs including manure, etc.
  • Watch for any patches of herbicide resistant weeds, weed escapes
  • Storage areas cleaned and ready to accept hay, soybean, corn harvests

Field Corn:

  • Note crop growth stage and condition
  • Check for European corn borer, Western bean cutworm, foliar diseases (such as Gray Leaf spot and Northern Corn leaf blight), vertebrate injury (birds / deer), slugs, weed escapes, herbicide injury, nutritional deficiencies, etc.
  • Monitor weed populations noting presence of "who", "how many" and "where"

Alfalfa & Hay:

  • Monitor alfalfa seedings for weeds, for potato leafhopper & diseases.
  • Check established alfalfa stands for potato leafhopper, weed and disease problems.
  • Check established alfalfa stands for signs of alfalfa snout beetle infestations in counties known to have this pest.
  • Storage areas cleaned and ready to accept next harvest

Soybeans:

  • Note crop growth stage and condition
  • Evaluate stand for soybean aphid, spider mites, deer, weed assessment, white mold, foliar disease incidence, harvest timing

Dairy Cattle: Livestock Barn Fly Management:

  • Monitor animals and facilities for house fly and stable fly populations
  • Check facilities for favorable fly breeding conditions: (organic matter + moisture): leaks in watering systems, roof gutters for leaks and potential overspill, drainage,
  • Sanitation, sanitation, sanitation - clean animal resting areas, feed troughs, minimize source of moist organic matter i.e. fly breeding areas in barn and in adjacent animal loafing yard * Continue fly monitoring: install "3X5" index card fly speck monitoring cards through out barn
  • Use, replenish, replace fly management materials: sticky fly tapes/ribbons, insecticide baits, natural enemies (parasitoids), fly population monitoring (3 x 5) spot cards
  • Continue release of purchased natural enemies (fly attacking parasitoids)

Dairy Cattle: Pasture Fly Management:

  • Monitor animals for presence of face flies, horn flies and stable flies. Action guidelines: face flies (average 10 per animal face), horn flies (average 50 / dairy, 200 / beef cattle per animal side), stable flies average 10 per animal  (all four legs)
  • Check feed bunk / water source locations for signs of stable fly breeding (moist undisturbed organic matter - spilled feed, round bales, etc.), minimize source of moist organic matter i.e. fly breeding areas in barn and in adjacent animal loafing yard
  • Check paddocks for forage quality / quantity, rotate as appropriate
  • Check paddocks for vegetation poisonous to livestock
  • Consider use of fly traps to help reduce deer, horse and stable fly populations

Storage:

  • Pre-clean in and around grain storage bins in anticipation of soybean and grain corn harvests.
  • Keep areas around storage bins and silos clean and mowed

Equipment:

  • Note any repairs needed for recently used equipment: tractors, tillage implements, harvesting equipment, etc. as they are cleaned and serviced.
  • Calibrate manure spreaders - maintain records on amount spread per field

PESTICIDE EMERGENCY NUMBERS

Emergency responder information on pesticide spills and accidents CHEMTREC:  800-424-9300

For pesticide information:

National Pesticide Information Center: 800-858-7378

To Report Oil and Hazardous Material Spills in New York State: NYS Department of Environmental Conservation Spill Response: 800-457-7362 (in NYS); 518-457-7362 (outside NYS)

Poison Control Centers: Poison Control Centers nationwide: 800-222-1222

If you are unable to reach a Poison Control Center or obtain the information your doctor needs, the office of the NYS Pesticide Coordinator at Cornell University, 607-255-1866, may be able to assist you in obtaining such information.

Contact Information


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Keith Waldron: NYS Livestock and Field Crops IPM Coordinator
Phone: (315) 787 - 2432
Fax: (315) 787-2360
Email: jkw5@cornell.edu

Ken Wise: Eastern NYS IPM Area Educator: Field Crops and Livestock
Phone: (518) 434-1690
Fax: (518) 426-3316
Email: klw24@cornell.edu