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Weekly Field Crops Pest Report 2010

July 16, 2010             Volume 9 Number 13

1. View from the Field

2. Weather Outlook July 15, 2010

3. Know Your Corn Rootworm Beetles!

4. Stable flies affecting animals on pasture

5. Dairy Cattle Pest Management Resources

6. Soybean Rust Update

7. Western Bean Cutworm Update

8. Clipboard Checklist

9. Contact Information

View from the Field


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This week at the Cornell Research Farm in Valatie potato leafhopper (PLH) were at the highest levels I have ever seen. They ranged for 150 PLH/3samples to 400 +PLH /3samples. At the SUNY Cobleskill Farm PLH was at low levels in 6 inch re-growth.

At a soybean TAg meeting this week we found just a few soybean aphids in the field. On average the soybeans had less than 1 aphid/plant.

Kevin Ganoe and one of this Soybean TAg Teams

The corn fields I monitor are looking very good. I searched for corn rootworm since some of the corn was tasseling but did not find any.

What I did find is European corn borer damage. I discovered some of the corn with corn borer feeding on the leaves and boring into to the tassels as seen in the following photo.

Western Bean Cutworm trap catches have come in again this week. Counts typically low 0 – 3 per trap per week – these numbers do not indicate cause for concern at this time. See article below for more information.

Weather Outlook July 15, 2010

Jessica Rennells
NOAA NE Climate Center, Cornell University

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Last week temperatures were 6 to 9 degrees above normal for most of the state, western NY was 3-6 degrees above normal. And most of the state had between half and two inches of precipitation.

The base 50 Growing Degree Days range from 150 to 200.  Almost the entire state is ahead of last year by more than 2 weeks.  The state is ahead of normal by 10 to over 14 days.

Today‘s temperatures will be in the mid 80’s to some low 90’s.  Overnight lows will be in the 60’s with a chance for showers in western NY.

Friday’s highs will be throughout the 80’s with humid conditions and scattered showers and thunderstorms across the state.  Friday night will be in the 60’s.

Saturday‘s highs will again be throughout the 80’s with a chance of scattered showers and thunderstorms and lows in the mid to upper 60’s.

Sunday’s highs continue throughout the 80’s, lows will be in the low to mid 60’s. There is a slight chance for scattered showers.

Monday highs will be throughout the 80’s with a chance for scattered showers and thunderstorms and lows in the low to mid 60’s.

Tuesday’s temperatures will be throughout the 80’s and lows in the low to mid 60’s. Continued chance for scattered showers and thunderstorms.

Wednesday’s highs will range from the upper 70’s to mid 80’s and the lows will be in the low to mid 60’s.  Slight chance for scattered showers.

The five day precipitation amounts will range from a quarter of an inch, to one and a quarter inches.  The 8-14 day outlook is showing  above normal temperatures for western NY and below normal precipitation for most of the state.

Know Your Corn Rootworm Beetles!


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Make sure you know your corn rootworm adult beetles before heading out to the fields. Here’s a review of how to identify the adult rootworms:

Western corn rootworm (WCRW) adults are black and yellow beetles that are approximately 1/4 inch long. The female is yellowish with 3 black stripes on its back, while the male is solid black with a pale yellow area at the tip of its abdomen (see photo, and stay tuned for a picture of a male WCRW). Northern corn rootworm is slightly smaller than the western, and it is bright green in color (see photo).

The northern corn rootworm (NCRW) used to be the predominant species in New York State, but since the arrival of the western in the 1980’s, the western has become the dominant species. When scouting, 1 western corn rootworm equals 2 northern corn rootworm adults. During pollination, developing ears can tolerate many rootworms feeding on silks (10+ per ear) without suffering economic losses.


WCRW Female
 
 

Watch for next week’s article on how to monitor corn rootworm in field corn.

Stable flies affecting animals on pasture

Keith Waldron
NYS IPM

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Are your livestock animals stomping their legs to dislodge flies on their lower legs or belly? Are you getting bit around your ankles by an aggressive fly, about the size of a house fly? These biting flies are probably stable flies. The stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans, is about the size of a house fly but is dark gray. Its abdomen has seven rounded dark spots on the upper surface. Similar in appearance to the common house fly, stable flies have a very prominent “spear-like” biting mouth part that extends forward from under the head. Both male and female stable flies feed on blood several times each day, taking one or two drops at each meal. Stomping of feet is a good indication that stable flies are present, since they normally attack legs and bellies. Production performance declines in infested herds because of the flies’ painful biting activity and animal fatigue from trying to dislodge flies. For more information see Integrated Management of Flies in and around Dairy and Livestock Barns.

Stable fly populations have been on the increase in many areas across the state. Considered a key fly pest of animals in confinement areas, these flies are becoming more of a pest for animals on pasture as well. Stable flies can breed locally in moist organic material such as spilled animal feed, the moist soil with round bale interface, spilled feed around feed bunks, poorly managed compost areas and water weeds washed to lake shorelines. Stable flies can also be transported long distances on weather fronts. Areas with lakes and waterways, such as the Finger Lakes Region, may experience stable fly breeding in lakeweed deposited on shorelines.

Stable flies are monitored by counting flies on all four legs of about 15 animals in the herd. Treatment is warranted when counts reach an average of 10 flies per animal.

Management requires removal of local conditions that favor fly breeding – i.e. reduce situations that favor accumulation of undisturbed moist organic matter. This option is, of course, not always doable or practical. Efforts are underway to evaluate various fly catching traps to help manage this pest by knocking down populations of locally breeding flies. One trap that has shown to have promise is constructed of clear alsynite (a fiberglass-like material) cylinder. Alsynite is attractive to these biting flies. When outfitted with a clear sticky surface, alsynite traps have been quite effective at capturing stable flies. At least two stable fly traps are available commercially. Two possible sources among others are Olson Products Biting Fly Trap (alsynite) and Farnam's Equine Products (non-alsynite but attracts via another method).

Dairy Cattle Pest Management Resources

Keith Waldron
NYS IPM

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Summer is here and warmer temperatures have been favorable for potential increases in fly pests affecting dairy animals and other livestock.

A quick source of factsheets, management recommendations and other resources on Livestock (dairy cattle, poultry, sheep, goats, swine, and horses)  Integrated Pest Management can be found at the IPM Program Livestock page, and at the Veterinary Entomology program at Cornell University.

For organic dairy producers a new IPM resource is available on-line at Organic Guides.

For those with a specific interest in dairy barn fly management an archive of a 2 hour Web stream broadcast is available for viewing or download at the Integrated Pest Management for Confined Dairy Animal Fly Pests IPM Teleconference.

Soybean Rust Update

Gary C. Bergstrom
Plant Pathologist, Cornell University

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Soybean rust has been reported on kudzu from the county of Leon, Florida on July 13th, 2010. Soybean rust was reported July 3rd in two counties in Alabama and one county in Florida. On June 28th, soybean rust was found in one county in Florida. Rust has also been confirmed recently on soybean in the northern portion of the state of Tamaulipas in Mexico. In 2010, soybean rust has been found in thirteen US counties and six states in Mexico.

NY State Soybean Rust Hotline: 607-255-7850

USDA Soybean Rust Website

Western Bean Cutworm Update

Keith Waldron
NYS IPM

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Western bean cutworm catches have increased this week. Most reporting stations still catching between 0-3 moths. Higher counts were obtained in Erie county (Eden, 25 WBC), and Spencerport (Monroe county, 12 WBC).

Western NY WBC trap catches are posted on the Sweet corn moth pest (European Corn Borer, corn ear worm, fall armyworm, wbc) survey network website.

Other moths caught in our NY WBC traps this past week: several yellow striped armyworm and one fall armyworm (Geneva).

WBC egg mass and larval scouting: Monitoring for egg masses. See IPM: Vegetables: Western Bean Cutworm for scouting recommendations. See also: Purdue extension has 2 short videos on scouting WBC egg masses and young larvae.

Ohio and Michigan predict their peak WBC flights could occur in next 2 weeks.

More on western bean cutworm in next week’s pest report.

Clipboard Checklist

Keith Waldron
NYS IPM

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General:

  • Emergency contact information ("911", local hospital, Chem. Spill emergency contact, other?) posted in central posting area
  • Maintain crop records by field, including variety, planting date, pesticides used, nutrient inputs including manure, etc.
  • Watch for any patches of herbicide resistant weeds, weed escapes
  • Storage areas cleaned and ready to accept hay, wheat harvest

Corn:

  • Monitor fields for plant vigor, growth stage, pest issues (corn rootworm, European corn borer, armyworm, foliar diseases, nutritional deficiencies)
  • Check no-till fields/fields with high residue or weeds for slug/snail damage
  • Monitor for weeds, note presence of "who", "how many" and "where" Small Grains:
  • Monitor spring grains for crop stage (heading, grain fill), insect problems (cereal leaf beetle, armyworm) and foliar / head diseases
  • Evaluate crop for plant vigor, lodging, maturity / time till harvest
  • Grain bins ready to accept upcoming harvest?

Alfalfa & Hay:

  • Monitor alfalfa seedings for weeds, insects & diseases.
  • Check regrowth of established alfalfa stands for potato leafhopper, weed and disease problems.
  • Storage areas cleaned and ready to accept incoming harvest

Soybeans:

  • Evaluate stand growth, development and condition
  • Monitor fields for soybean aphid, foliar diseases, white mold, natural enemies, weed escapes

Dairy Livestock Barn Fly Management:

  • Sanitation, sanitation, sanitation - clean animal resting areas, feed troughs, minimize source of moist organic matter i.e. fly breeding areas in barn and in adjacent animal loafing yard
  • Check water sources, drainage, roof gutters for leaks and potential overspill
  • Continue fly monitoring: install "3X5" index card fly speck monitoring cards through out barn
  • Install/refresh/replenish as needed: fly tapes, insecticide baits, natural enemies (parasitoids)

Storage:

  • Keep areas around storage bins and silos clean and mowed
  • Check wheat stored bin aeration and temperature.
  • Check areas around storage bins and silos for vertebrate tunneling
  • Clean in and outside of storage bins and grain handling equipment
  • Check temperature of recently baled hay in hay mow
    Equipment:
  • Note any repairs needed for recently used equipment: tractors, tillage implements, planters, sprayers, etc. as they are cleaned and serviced.
  • Service hay harvesting equipment as needed.
  • Calibrate manure spreaders - maintain records on amount spread per field

PESTICIDE EMERGENCY NUMBERS

Emergency responder information on pesticide spills and accidents CHEMTREC:  800-424-9300

For pesticide information:

National Pesticide Information Center: 800-858-7378

To Report Oil and Hazardous Material Spills in New York State: NYS Department of Environmental Conservation Spill Response: 800-457-7362 (in NYS); 518-457-7362 (outside NYS)

Poison Control Centers: Poison Control Centers nationwide: 800-222-1222

If you are unable to reach a Poison Control Center or obtain the information your doctor needs, the office of the NYS Pesticide Coordinator at Cornell University, 607-255-1866, may be able to assist you in obtaining such information.

Contact Information


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Keith Waldron: NYS Livestock and Field Crops IPM Coordinator
Phone: (315) 787 - 2432
Fax: (315) 787-2360
Email: jkw5@cornell.edu

Ken Wise: Eastern NYS IPM Area Educator: Field Crops and Livestock
Phone: (518) 434-1690
Fax: (518) 426-3316
Email: klw24@cornell.edu