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Weekly Field Crops Pest Report 2010

July 13, 2010             Volume 9 Number 12

1. View from the Field

2. Weather Outlook July 8, 2010

3. Aphid Mummies in Alfalfa and Soybean

4. Soybean Defoliators: Do They Do Damage?

5. Western Bean Cutworm Trap Catch Data, Summary 7.12.10

6. NYS Soybean Rust Update

7. Clipboard Checklist

8. Mark Your Calendars

9. Contact Information

View from the Field


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This last week I found very high populations of potato leafhopper at the Cornell Research Farm in Valatie. In some fields I caught 150 potato leaf hoppers in 3 samples. All fields at Valatie were over threshold. During a TAg meeting last week just off I-88 south of Bainbridge we discovered a few soybean aphids. It took about 30 minutes to find a just a few. We also captured one western bean cutworm moth at the SUNY Cobleskill Farm this last week.

Western bean cutworm moths were again caught in the 54 traps reporting this past week. Thirty-three moths were caught the week of July 5th , up from sixteen moths captured the previous week. Soybean aphid populations continue to be very low to trace in sites monitored across the state.

Weather Outlook July 8, 2010

Jessica Rennells
NOAA NE Climate Center, Cornell University

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Last week temperatures were 0 to 3 degrees above normal for most of the state. The week started cooler and has been very hot to bring the average within 3 degrees of normal.  The week has been dry, most of the state getting a hundredth of an inch or less.  The northern part of the state had up to half an inch of rain.

The base 50 Growing Degree Days range from 100 to 150.  The Adirondacks, Western Plateau and Catskill regions had 100  to 125 while the rest of the state had 125 to 150.  Most of the state is ahead of last year by more than two weeks.  The eastern edge of the state is ahead by 7-14 days.  Most of the state is ahead of normal by one to two weeks.

Today (Thursday) well have continued hot temperatures ranging from the mid 80s into the mid 90s.  The lows will be in the mid 60s to low 70s.

Fridays temperatures will bring slightly cooler temperatures ranging from the lower 80s to low 90s.  Rain and thunderstorms are likely across western and northern NY as a cold front moves in.  The overnight temperatures will also cool down into the upper 50s and 60s.

Saturday the cold front will bring some cooler temperatures and the possibility of more showers and thunderstorms.  Highs will be in the upper 70s to mid 80s.  Overnight temperatures will be in the mid 60s to near 70.

Sunday high pressure will move in and temperatures will be throughout the 80s during the day and low to mid 60s overnight.  Scattered showers are possible for eastern NY.

Monday will have highs in the mid to upper 80s with some 90s possible and lows in the low 60s.

Tuesdays temperatures will be throughout the 80s.   The lows will be in the mid to upper 60s.  Scattered showers are possible across the state.  
Wednesdays highs will be in the low to mid 80s and the lows will be throughout the 60s.  Continued chance of scattered showers across the state.

The five day precipitation amounts will be between 1 and 2 inches.  The 8-14 day outlook is showing above normal temperatures, and precipitation neither above nor below normal.

Aphid Mummies in Alfalfa and Soybean

Keith Waldron
NYS IPM

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Walking fields is critical to early detection of crop problems. It's also a way to discover all sorts of interesting examples of ecology in action.  One such example, common in alfalfa this time of year, is the presence of what might appear to be bronzed colored aphids "resting" on alfalfa leaves.  "Resting aphids?" What are you really seeing? One type of biological control of pea aphids.

Pea aphids [Acyrthosiphon pisum (Hemiptera: Aphididae)] tend to be found in low to modest numbers in NY alfalfa but are generally not an economic pest. These insects are a food source by many natural enemies such as lace wing and lady bird beetle larvae. The bronze colored "resting" aphids one may see on alfalfa leaves are aphid "mummies" the result of the aphid being parasitized by a type of tiny wasp. In NY, two types of wasps can be found: Praon pequodorum and Aphidius ervi both Hymenopterans in the family Braconidae.

Praon pequodorum is a native aphid parasitoid which includes the pea aphid in its host range. Aphidius ervi was introduced to the United States in the late 1950's and early 1960's for biological control of pea aphid. This species is now widely distributed in North American alfalfa, often achieving high levels of parasitism. A. ervi is the more common parasitoid we encounter attacking pea aphids in NY.

Who's who? Aphidius mummies are smooth. Praon mummies look like they have webbing around them, with the bronze colored aphid body sitting on top. See photo.

How did that happen? When the female wasp finds a suitable host, she bends her abdomen under her legs and injects an egg in the aphid with her ovipositor. Aphids may continue feeding and reproducing for several days, until the egg hatches. When the egg hatches, the wasp larvae start to eat the aphid from the inside and the larva completes its life cycle in the aphid body. Effective parasitization is obvious when the aphid swells and hardens into a leathery, brown colored "mummy". The parasite completes it's life cycle by emerging as an adult through a round hole at the rear of the mummy. Mummies can usually be seen 14 - 21 days after the first introduction is made. Development time is dependent upon the temperature and other environmental factors. One female wasp lays about 350 eggs in a lifetime. Most of these eggs are laid in the first five days after introduction.

The life cycle of Apidius ervi described above is excerpted from "Biological Control of Aphids with Aphidius ervi" by Cathy Thomas (PA Dept Ag IPM Program). The Vegetable and Small Fruit Gazette, April 2001, Volume 5, No. 4.

Note: Species of Aphidius and Praon have also been found attacking soybean aphids in NY - watch for mummies.... 

Soybean Defoliators: Do They Do Damage?

Ken Wise
NYS IPM

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Japanese beetle, Mexican bean beetle and bean leaf beetle are the main defoliators of soybeans in NYS. While they are minor pests, defoliation of soybeans sends up many red flags by growers. The question normally is how much leaf defoliation is too much in soybeans? The good thing is that soybeans can withstand much defoliation without losing yield. The soybean defoliation threshold is 35 percent of leaf area eaten or missing from V1 to just before bloom. During blooming through pod-filling stages, the threshold is 20 percent defoliation. The following pictures are a guide that depict 10, 20, 30 and 40 percent defoliation:

10 percent defoliation 
20 percent defoliation
30 percent defoliation
40 percent defoliation
(Source: Purdue University Field Crops Pest Management Manual, 1/92)

Western Bean Cutworm Trap Catch Data, Summary 7.12.10

Keith Waldron
NYS IPM

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Western Bean Cutworm (WBC) monitoring / pheromone traps have been deployed in 29 NY counties this season. A total of 54 traps are currently in service. For the week of July 5th  a total of thirty-three moths had been collected. This brings our total 2010 catch to 47. These numbers do not indicate cause for concern at this time, but rather are an indication of the widespread distribution of the moths. By comparison so far this season Ontario has collected 364 moths and Michigan (260+ traps) slightly less than 4000. Thanks to those who are monitoring the WBC network!

More on WBC in the weeks ahead..  

County (# traps)
27-Jun
4-Jul
County (# traps)
27-Jun
4-Jul
Cattaraugus (1)
0
3
Niagara (1)
NA
0
Cayuga (1)
NA
0
Oneida (1)
NA
NA
Chautauqua (1)
NA
0
Onondaga (1)
NA
0
Chemung (2)
2
0
Schoharie (1)
0
1
Columbia (1)
0
0
Seneca (1)
0
1
Cortland (4)
4
6
Steuben (6)
2
3
Erie (1)
NA
12
Suffolk (1)
0
1
Genesee (2)
NA
2
Tioga (6)
1
1
Jefferson (1)
NA
NA
Tompkins (5)
5
0
Lewis (1)
0
0
Yates (2)
NA
3
Livingston (2)
0
0
Washington (1)
NA
NA
Madison (1)
NA
0
Wayne (1)
NA
0
Monroe (2)
NA
0
Wyoming (1
NA
0
Montgomery (1)
0
0
     

NA = not available

NYS Soybean Rust Update

Gary C. Bergstrom
Plant Pathologist, Cornell University

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United States Soybean Rust Commentary (updated: 07/06/10) Soybean rust was reported July 3rd in two counties in Alabama and one county in Florida. On June 28th, soybean rust was found in one county in Florida. On June 6th, rust was found in one county in Texas. These five counties are the only active 2010 occurrences of soybean rust. All reports except the two from Florida are on soybeans. Rust has also been confirmed on soybean in the neighboring Mexican state of Tamaulipas. Specifically, in the municipalities of Rio Bravo, Valle Hermoso, Matamoros, and the more southern municipalities of Ocampo, Gmez Farias, and Aldama, of Tamaulipas state, Mexico earlier in the year. In 2010, soybean rust has been found in thirteen US counties and six states in Mexico.

NYS Soybean Rust Website

USDA Soybean Rust Website

Clipboard Checklist

Keith Waldron
NYS IPM

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General

  • Emergency contact information ("911", local hospital, Chem. Spill emergency contact, other?) posted in central posting area
  • Maintain crop records by field, including variety, planting date, pesticides used, nutrient inputs including manure, etc.
  • Walk fields to check crop condition, growth, and emergence. Look for signs of vertebrate pests (birds, deer, etc.).
  • Mow around farm buildings to minimize rodent and other pest habitat
    Alfalfa and Grass Hay
  • Monitor alfalfa for crop condition, potato leafhopper, foliar, systemic and crown rot diseases.
  • Evaluate alfalfa seedings for weeds, potato leafhopper & diseases.
  • Monitor alfalfa and grass stands to assess regrowth and determine optimal harvest date.

 Small Grains

  • Monitor winter grain fields for crop growth stage, signs and symptoms of diseases, weed pressure, insects (cereal leaf beetle) goose damage
  • Monitor winter wheat for foliar diseases, potential for Fusarium Head Blight
  • Evaluate field for projected harvest date.

Field Corn

  • Post emergence: Determine corn plant populations, monitor for weeds, noting presence of "who", "how many" and "where"
  • Mid season corn pests: European corn borer, slugs, armyworm, foliar diseases, birds

Soybeans

  • Monitor crop growth and condition, monitor for weeds, noting presence of "who", "how many" and "where"
  • Monitor for soybean aphid and diseases

Pastures:

  • Check crop growth
  • Check for presence of undesirable plant species harmful to livestock.
  • Review/Plan rotation system

Equipment

  • Check your application or harvesting equipment for readiness or need for repairs.

Storage

  • Clean grain storage bins in anticipation of wheat harvest.
  • Keep records on placement of forage harvested from various fields

Cattle on Pasture:

  • Monitor animals for presence of face flies, horn flies and stable flies. Action guidelines: face flies (average 10 per animal face), horn flies (average 50 / dairy, 200 / beef cattle per animal side), stable flies average 10 per animal  (all four legs)
  • Check feed bunk / water source locations for signs of stable fly breeding (moist undisturbed organic matter - spilled feed, round bales, etc.), minimize source of moist organic matter i.e. fly breeding areas in barn and in adjacent animal loafing yard
  • Check paddocks for forage quality / quantity, rotate as appropriate
  • Check paddocks for vegetation poisonous to livestock
  • Consider use of fly traps to help reduce deer, horse and stable fly populations

Dairy Cattle Barn Fly Management

  • Monitor animals and barn area for house fly, stable fly and other pest management needs including presence of rodents and birds.
  • Check facilities for favorable fly breeding conditions: (organic matter + moisture): leaks in watering systems, roof gutters for leaks and potential overspill, drainage,
  • Sanitation, sanitation, sanitation - clean animal resting areas, feed troughs, minimize source of moist organic matter i.e. fly breeding areas in barn and in adjacent animal loafing yard
  • Continue fly monitoring: install "3X5" index card fly speck monitoring cards throughout barn
  • Use, replenish, replace fly management materials: sticky fly tapes/ribbons, insecticide baits, natural enemies (parasitoids), fly population monitoring (3 x 5) spot cards
  • Consider purchase and release of Muscidifurax raptor and/or M. raptorellus natural enemies of house and stable fly pupae.

PESTICIDE EMERGENCY NUMBERS

Emergency responder information on pesticide spills and accidents CHEMTREC:  800-424-9300

For pesticide information:

National Pesticide Information Center: 800-858-7378

To Report Oil and Hazardous Material Spills in New York State: NYS Department of Environmental Conservation Spill Response: 800-457-7362 (in NYS); 518-457-7362 (outside NYS)

Poison Control Centers: Poison Control Centers nationwide: 800-222-1222

If you are unable to reach a Poison Control Center or obtain the information your doctor needs, the office of the NYS Pesticide Coordinator at Cornell University, 607-255-1866, may be able to assist you in obtaining such information.

Mark Your Calendars


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July 8 Seed Growers Field Day, NYSIP Foundation Seed Barn, Ithaca, NY (791 Dryden Road, Route 366)

July 14-- Weed Science Field Day, Thompson Research Farm, Freeville, NY (morning program)\

July 14-- NYSABA Summer BBQ, Musgrave Research Farm, 1256 Poplar Ridge Rd.,  Aurora, NY (12:00 noon)

July 14-- Weed Science Field Day, Musgrave Research Farm, 1256 Poplar Ridge Rd., Aurora, NY (1:30pm 5:00pm)

July 22-- Aurora Farm Field Day, Musgrave Research Farm, 1256 Poplar Ridge Rd., Aurora, NY (10:00am-3:00pm)

Contact Information


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Keith Waldron: NYS Livestock and Field Crops IPM Coordinator
Phone: (315) 787 - 2432
Fax: (315) 787-2360
Email: jkw5@cornell.edu

Ken Wise: Eastern NYS IPM Area Educator: Field Crops and Livestock
Phone: (518) 434-1690
Fax: (518) 426-3316
Email: klw24@cornell.edu