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Weekly Field Crops Pest Report 2010

July 6 , 2010             Volume 9 Number 11

1. View from the Field

2. Dung Beetles in Your Pasture!

3. NYS Soybean Rust Update

4. Clipboard Checklist

5. Mark Your Calendars

6. Contact Information

View from the Field


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This week I was in alfalfa at the Cornell Farm at Valatie that had pretty high populations of potato leafhoppers. One field was just over the threshold for PLH with 75 leafhoppers in three samples (Sample = 10 sweeps of a 15 inch sweep-net).

Western Bean Cutworm moths are here!
This week we've had reports of WBC captures in 10 of our 46 WBC traps across the state. WBC moths were caught in sweet corn fields in 6 central NY counties: Yates (1), Chemung (2), Tompkins (5), Tioga (1), Cortland (2) and Steuben (6).  1 - 4 moths per trap. All captures are first occurrence reports for these counties.

Dung Beetles in Your Pasture!

Ken Wise
NYSIPM

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Face flies and horn flies, two key fly pests attacking cattle on pasture, both complete their egg, larval and pupal stages in cow manure. These two fly pests are, however, frequently not alone – about 450 arthropod species have been reported to inhabit cow pats. Why dig through manure to find dung beetles? Dung beetles are very important insects that help decompose cattle manure and aide in recycling nutrients in pastures. Dung beetles compete with other organisms like flies inside the cattle pat for resources within the manure, thus limiting pasture fly development. Dung beetles help recycle the manure back into the soil providing nutrients for the pasture grasses to continue to grow and produce forage. Having a good population of dung beetles is an indication of a healthy pasture.  There are three types of dung beetles that can occupy a dung pat:

  • Rollers (telecoprids) Geotrupes species, form balls of manure which they push from the pat to bury as brood balls
  • Tunnelers (paracoprids) Onthophagus species are tunnelers that consume the pat and burrow beneath it to bury brood balls. 
  • Dwellers (endocoprids) Aphodius species, consume the manure as they tunnel within the dung pat and oviposit eggs in the manure or surrounding soil.  Most dung beetles found in NY are dwellers.

Keith Waldron showing producer dung beetles in manure on pasture

Some feed-through insecticides can have detrimental effects on manure inhabiting arthropods. These materials are not always completely metabolized in the body and are dispelled into the manure pat. To enhance dung beetle populations try to select fly control methods and products that help preserve dung beetles in your pastures.

NYS Soybean Rust Update

Gary C. Bergstrom
Plant Pathologist, Cornell University

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United States Soybean Rust Commentary (updated: 06/29/10

Soybean rust was confirmed June-10, in the US for the first time this season on soybean in Hidalgo county, Texas. Rust has also been confirmed on soybean in the neighboring Mexican state of Tamaulipas. Specifically, in the municipalities of Rio Bravo, Valle Hermoso, Matamoros, and the more southern municipalities of Ocampo, Gómez Farias, and Aldama, of Tamaulipas state, Mexico earlier in the year.

Soybean rust has also been confirmed this month (June) on kudzu in Mobile, Alabama, and Jefferson, Florida.

In 2010, soybean rust was reported on kudzu in one county in Alabama, two counties in Georgia, four counties in Louisiana, and one county in Florida in the US Soybean rust has also been reported in Mexico on soybean in the state of Tamaulipas in González and Mante municipalities. In Mexico soybean rust has also been reported on jicama in the states of Tamaulipas, Veracruz-Llave, Campeche, San Luis Potosi and Chiapas. In 2010, soybean rust has been found in eight US counties and five states in Mexico.

In 2009, soybean rust was found in 16 states and over 576 counties in the United States, and in three states and nine municipalities in Mexico. 

Clipboard Checklist

Keith Waldron
NYS IPM

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General

  • Emergency contact information ("911", local hospital, Chem. Spill emergency contact, other?) posted in central posting area
  • Maintain crop records by field, including variety, planting date, pesticides used, nutrient inputs including manure, etc.
  • Walk fields to check crop condition, growth, and emergence. Look for signs of vertebrate pests (birds, deer, etc.).
  • Mow around farm buildings to minimize rodent and other pest habitat

Alfalfa and Grass Hay

  • Monitor alfalfa for crop condition, potato leafhopper, foliar, systemic and crown rot diseases.
  • Evaluate alfalfa seedings for weeds, potato leafhopper & diseases.
  • Monitor alfalfa and grass stands to assess regrowth and determine optimal harvest date.

Small Grains

  • Monitor winter grain fields for crop growth stage, signs and symptoms of diseases, weed pressure, insects (cereal leaf beetle) goose damage
  • Monitor winter wheat for foliar diseases, potential for Fusarium Head Blight
  • Evaluate field for projected harvest date.
  • Clean and sanitize grain storage bins prior to harvest

Field Corn

  • Post emergence: Determine corn plant populations, monitor for weeds, noting presence of "who", "how many" and "where"
  • Mid season corn pests: European corn borer, slugs, armyworm, foliar diseases, birds

Soybeans

  • Monitor crop growth and condition, monitor for weeds, noting presence of "who", "how many" and "where"
  • Monitor for soybean aphid and diseases

Pastures:

  • Check crop growth
  • Check for presence of undesirable plant species harmful to livestock.
  • Review/Plan rotation system

Equipment

  • Check your application or harvesting equipment for readiness or need for repairs.

Storage

  • Clean grain storage bins in anticipation of wheat harvest.
  • Keep records on placement of forage harvested from various fields

Cattle on Pasture:

  • Monitor animals for presence of face flies, horn flies and stable flies. Action guidelines: face flies (average 10 per animal face), horn flies (average 50 / dairy, 200 / beef cattle per animal side), stable flies average 10 per animal  (all four legs)
  • Check feed bunk / water source locations for signs of stable fly breeding (moist undisturbed organic matter - spilled feed, round bales, etc.), minimize source of moist organic matter i.e. fly breeding areas in barn and in adjacent animal loafing yard
  • Check paddocks for forage quality / quantity, rotate as appropriate
  • Check paddocks for vegetation poisonous to livestock
  • Consider use of fly traps to help reduce deer, horse and stable fly populations

Dairy Cattle Barn Fly Management

  • Monitor animals and barn area for house fly, stable fly and other pest management needs including presence of rodents and birds.
  • Check facilities for favorable fly breeding conditions: (organic matter + moisture): leaks in watering systems, roof gutters for leaks and potential overspill, drainage,
  • Sanitation, sanitation, sanitation - clean animal resting areas, feed troughs, minimize source of moist organic matter i.e. fly breeding areas in barn and in adjacent animal loafing yard
  • Continue fly monitoring: install "3X5" index card fly speck monitoring cards throughout barn
  • Use, replenish, replace fly management materials: sticky fly tapes/ribbons, insecticide baits, natural enemies (parasitoids), fly population monitoring (3 x 5) spot cards
  • Consider purchase and release of Muscidifurax raptor and/or M. raptorellus natural enemies of house and stable fly pupae.

PESTICIDE EMERGENCY NUMBERS

Emergency responder information on pesticide spills and accidents CHEMTREC:  800-424-9300

For pesticide information:

National Pesticide Information Center: 800-858-7378

To Report Oil and Hazardous Material Spills in New York State: NYS Department of Environmental Conservation Spill Response: 800-457-7362 (in NYS); 518-457-7362 (outside NYS)

Poison Control Centers: Poison Control Centers nationwide: 800-222-1222

If you are unable to reach a Poison Control Center or obtain the information your doctor needs, the office of the NYS Pesticide Coordinator at Cornell University, 607-255-1866, may be able to assist you in obtaining such information.

Mark Your Calendars


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July 8 – Seed Growers Field Day, NYSIP Foundation Seed Barn, Ithaca, NY (791 Dryden Road, Route 366)

July 14-- Weed Science Field Day, Thompson Research Farm, Freeville, NY (morning program)

July 14-- NYSABA Summer BBQ, Musgrave Research Farm, 1256 Poplar Ridge Rd.,  Aurora, NY (12:00 noon)

July 14-- Weed Science Field Day, Musgrave Research Farm, 1256 Poplar Ridge Rd., Aurora, NY (1:30pm 5:00pm)

July 22-- Aurora Farm Field Day, Musgrave Research Farm, 1256 Poplar Ridge Rd., Aurora, NY (10:00am-3:00pm)

Contact Information


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Keith Waldron: NYS Livestock and Field Crops IPM Coordinator
Phone: (315) 787 - 2432
Fax: (315) 787-2360
Email: jkw5@cornell.edu

Ken Wise: Eastern NYS IPM Area Educator: Field Crops and Livestock
Phone: (518) 434-1690
Fax: (518) 426-3316
Email: klw24@cornell.edu