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Weekly Field Crops Pest Report 2009

September 11, 2009                     Volume 8 Number 20

1. View from the Field

2. Weather Outlook

3. Fall Weed Survey - Invasive species and Plants affecting Livestock

4. Soybean Rust Update

5. Soybean Aphid Update

6. Clipboard Checklist

7. Contact Information

View from the Field


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Mike Stanyard reports finding white mold in soybean fields in Northeastern New York. For more information view our article on White Mold in Soybeans.

Several diseases were observed in the soybean sentinel plot in Washington County. The Cornell University Diagnostic Lab confirms these as: Downy Mildew (44% incidence), Bacterial Blight (34% incidence), Soybean Brown Spot (34% incidence) and Bacterial Pustule (2% incidence).

Soybean aphid populations appear to have plummeted in the past few weeks with only trace numbers reported in NY this week. By contrast, high soybean aphid numbers are still being reported in Ontario and Ohio∑ so it is still worth scouting SBAs until R6 stage.

A western bean cutworm (WBC) larva was collected September 4th in field corn in Niagara county by Nate Herendeen (WNYCMA. This is the first report of a WBC larva in NY. We are interested in any additional observations regarding this pest. For more information on identification see the August 28, 2009 issue of the weekly pest report.

Weather Outlook

Jessica Rennells
NOAA NE Regional Climate Center, Cornell University

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Temperatures were right around normal this past week, ranging from 3 degrees below to 3 degrees above normal.  Little precipitation fell; most of the state had less than 0.01 inches.  Some areas had up to half an inch.

The Base 50 Growing Degree Days ranged from 50 to over 100.  Most of the state was in the 75 to 100 range.  The entire state is still behind last year.  Most of the state is 1 to 2 weeks behind last year.  Compared to normal most of the state is behind.  Areas in the Eastern Plateau and the Hudson Valley are 0 to 7 days ahead of normal.   Parts of Broome, Delaware, and Chenango counties are over 2 weeks ahead of normal.   Most of Central NY is 3 to 10 days behind normal.   The Western Plateau and Great Lakes range from 3 to 14 days behind normal.  The St. Lawrence Valley, Northern Plateau, and Mohawk Valley range from 10 days to over 2 weeks behind normal.  The Champlain Valley and northern Hudson Valley are 0 to 7 days behind normal.

The next week will have slightly cooler temperatures and a possibility of some precipitation.  Todays highs will be in the 60s and low 70s with a chance of scattered showers for southern NY.  Tonight's temperatures will be in the 40s and low 50s.  Friday the whole state has a chance of scattered showers and temperatures in the 60s during the day and 50s during the night.  High pressure will move in Saturday giving temperatures in the upper 60s and low 70s though some scattered showers will remain along eastern NY.  Lows will be in the mid to upper 50s.  Sunday will be nice with highs in the mid 70s and lows in the mid 50s.  Monday will have temperatures in the low to mid 70s and mid to upper 50s at night.  Tuesday theres a slight chance of scattered showers as low pressure will be in the area, highs in the upper 60s and low to mid 70s and lows in the mid to upper 50s.  Wednesday will have highs in the mid 70s and lows in the upper 50s.  The 5 day precipitation amounts range from 0.1 inch to 1.5 inches.  The higher amounts will be in the southeast corner of the state.   For the 8-14 day outlook temperatures will be slightly above normal for the great lakes region and slightly below normal for the southeast corner of NY.  Precipitation is expected to be above normal for the whole state.

Fall Weed Survey - Invasive species and Plants affecting Livestock

Keith Waldron
NYS IPM

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Harvest season is upon us and with it another opportunity to visit fields up close and personal. This is a great time to take stock of what field issues can be found and note them in field records to enhance future management decisions. Note particularly good and bad areas, differences in crop height, plant populations, drainage, yield, etc. Updates on pest presence or damage can also be noted at this time.

An easily visible pest group to document this time of year are weeds. What species? Where are they found? How many are there? What management type (annual, perennial, biennial, grass or broadleaf species? Knowing this information helps to refine weed management decisions and develop next years cropping plans.

While visiting fields to conduct the fall weed survey note presence of troublesome perennial species like Canada thistle and milkweed and potentially invasive species such as spiderwort, garlic mustard, Japanese knotweed, leafy spurge, multiflora rose and spotted knapweed growing in or around production and fallow fields, pastures, in fence lines or in windbreaks. Many websites have information on invasive plant species. For information on invasive species in NYS see the New York Invasive Species website and the National Invasive Species Information Center.

If you raise livestock, fall is also a good time to assess pastures and other grazed areas for presence of common weed species known to be harmful to animals. These species include horsetail (Equisetum spp), poke weed, St. Johnswort, tall buttercup, jimson weed, common milkweed and among others. A listing of some common plants poisonous to livestock can be found in the publication: Common Weeds Poisonous to Grazing Livestock

To learn more about Plants Poisonous to Livestock and other Animals see: Plants Poisonous to Livestock

Soybean Rust Update

Gary Bergstrom
Plant Pathology, Cornell University

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United States Soybean Rust Commentary (updated: 09/09/09)

On September 9th, soybean rust was reported in Effingham, Jeff Davies, and Randolph Counties, Georgia; Clay, Shelby, Tuscaloosa and St. Clair Counties, Alabama; and in Evangeline, Ouachita, Rapides, Richland, and St. Landry Parishes in Louisiana. On September 8th, soybean rust was reported in five Mississippi counties (Choctaw, Clay, Monroe, Oktibbeha, and Webster). On September 6th, soybean rust was reported in Wilkinson, Jefferson, Adams and Claiborne counties, Mississippi; and Pickens County, Alabama. On September 5th, rust was observed in several fields in Shelby County in the southwest corner of the Tennessee.

In 2009, soybean rust has been found in nine states and 132 counties in the United States, and in two states and five municipalities in Mexico.

Soybean Aphid Update

Keith Waldron
NYS IPM

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Soybean fields are generally maturing across the state with the majority of fields currently at early to late pod fill stages. Some early maturing varieties beginning to loose all leaves. A few soybean fields in central NY were harvested this week.

Soybean aphid populations have largely dissipated in most fields with few soybean aphids present. Populations of beneficial arthropods including Coccinelids, syrphid flies, lacewings, parasitic wasps and fungal pathogens reported statewide. Spider mite infestations, foliar diseases and white mold in soybeans have been reported in some areas of central and western NY.

For more information see: Management Toolbox - Guidelines - USA

Clipboard Checklist

Keith Waldron
NYS IPM

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General:
* Emergency contact information ("911", local hospital, Chem. Spill emergency contact, other?) posted in central posting area
* Maintain crop records by field, including variety, planting date, pesticides used, nutrient inputs including manure, yields, etc.
* Watch for weed escapes, any patches of herbicide resistant weeds?

Field Corn:
* Note crop growth stage and condition
* Check for European corn borer, foliar and stalk rot diseases, vertebrate injury (birds / deer), weed escapes, nutritional deficiencies, western bean cutworm, etc.
* Check corn for kernel maturity, timing of silage harvest
* Monitor weed populations noting presence of "who", "how many" and "where"

Alfalfa & Hay:
* Monitor alfalfa seedings for weeds, for potato leafhopper & diseases.
* Check established alfalfa stands for potato leafhopper, weed and disease problems.
* Storage areas cleaned and ready to accept next harvest?

Soybeans:
* Note crop growth stage and condition
* Evaluate stand for soybean aphid, spider mites, deer, weed assessment, foliar disease and white mold incidence
* Note presence of herbicide resistant corn

Dairy Cattle: Livestock Barn Fly Management:
* Monitor animals and facilities for house fly and stable fly populations
* Check facilities for favorable fly breeding conditions: (organic matter + moisture): leaks in watering systems, roof gutters for leaks and potential overspill, drainage,
* Sanitation, sanitation, sanitation - clean animal resting areas, feed troughs, minimize source of moist organic matter i.e. fly breeding areas in barn and in adjacent animal loafing yard * Continue fly monitoring: install "3X5" index card fly speck monitoring cards through out barn
* Use, replenish, replace fly management materials: sticky fly tapes/ribbons, insecticide baits, natural enemies (parasitoids), fly population monitoring (3 x 5) spot cards
* Continue release of purchased natural enemies (fly attacking parasitoids)

Dairy Cattle: Pasture Fly Management:
* Monitor animals for presence of face flies, horn flies and stable flies. Action guidelines: face flies (average 10 per animal face), horn flies (average 50 / dairy, 200 / beef cattle per animal side), stable flies average 10 per animal  (all four legs)
* Check feed bunk / water source locations for signs of stable fly breeding (moist undisturbed organic matter spilled feed, round bales, etc.), minimize source of moist organic matter i.e. fly breeding areas in barn and in adjacent animal loafing yard
* Check paddocks for forage quality / quantity, rotate as appropriate
* Check paddocks for vegetation poisonous to livestock
* Consider use of fly traps to help reduce deer, horse and stable fly populations

Storage:
* Pre-clean in and around grain storage bins in anticipation of soybean and grain corn harvests.
* Keep areas around storage bins and silos clean and mowed

Equipment:
* Note any repairs needed for recently used equipment: tractors, tillage implements, harvesting equipment, etc. as they are cleaned and serviced.
* Calibrate manure spreaders - maintain records on amount spread per field

Contact Information


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Keith Waldron: NYS Livestock and Field Crops IPM Coordinator
Phone: (315) 787 - 2432
Fax: (315) 787-2360
Email: jkw5@cornell.edu

Ken Wise: Eastern NYS IPM Area Educator: Field Crops and Livestock
Phone: (518) 434-1690
Fax: (518) 426-3316
Email: klw24@cornell.edu