View from the Field
Alfalfa weevil (AW) infestations across the state have reached
threshold in several fields. Most alfalfa that is over threshold
for AW were fields that have not been harvested. Jeff Miller, Mike
Stanyard, Brain Aldrich, and Ken Wise all report alfalfa fields
over threshold for AW. Some of the fields ranged from 60 to 100
percent tip feeding. The economic threshold for AW before first
cutting is 40% of the stem tips show feeding damage.
Mike Stanyard reports that growers are dealing with weeds in
field corn. He states that lambsquarters are 4 to 5 inches tall.
Growers in the NW region of the state are busy spraying corn fields
for weeds. Mike also suggests that slugs have been feeding on soybean
seedlings in a few fields.
Fireflies observed in Capital District (Kinderhook) and Finger
Geneva area) of central NY. Timing of the first
firefly sightings usually coincide with hatch of corn rootworm eggs.
Weather Outlook 6.02.08
NOAA Northeast Regional Climate Center, Cornell
Temperatures returned to below normal levels this past week,
but only a couple degrees cooler than normal in the west. Areas
east of I-81 were cooler, running 3 to 6 degrees colder than average,
with a few places even up to 9 degrees below average. Precipitation
was widespread, with most areas picking up between 1 and 2 inches.
Areas Downstate were the exception, where less than 1 inch fell.
Some places in the Southern Tier and Eastern regions picked up over
The Base 50 Growing Degree Days accumulated most in the west,
where there were 50 to 75. Places east of I-81 got less than 50,
while places in the Adirondaks received fewer than 25 growing degree
days. For the year, this puts places near the Great Lakes and near
Albany generally in the 300 to 400 range, while
most other places are between 200 and 300. The
North Country has slightly less, averaging between 100 and
200. Compared to last year, areas south of I-90 are 3 to 7 days
ahead, while places north of the Thruway are within a couple days
above or below last year. A similar gradient appears when comparing
seasonal values to normal, with places south of I-90 as much as
a week ahead and places north of I-90 as much as a week behind.
That corresponds to about 75 growing degree days above or
The weather pattern of the past few days has been very static,
with a front stalled out to the south of
New York. This has kept temperatures below average,
but has been too far south for much in the way of rain. Areas across
the Southern Tier could see some rain today, but anywhere north
of I-90 will likely stay dry. The stalled front will finally start
to move today, allowing for an extended period of sunshine starting
tomorrow. Highs will gradually warm up as well, with low to mid
70s on Friday. Sunny conditions should continue right into Saturday,
with highs in the low 70s to the north and west, and upper 70s in
the south and east. Lows Friday and Saturday should be in the mid
40s to low 50s. A cold front will move through Saturday, but no
precipitation is expected with it. Highs Sunday will be slightly
cooler, with temperatures near 70 in the north and west, and mid
70s across the south and east. An area of low pressure will move
towards the state from the southwest starting Monday, with highs
in the low 70s statewide. As the low moves by Tuesday, highs will
generally be in the upper 60s to low 70s. Lows Monday and Tuesday
should be in the low to mid 50s. How much rain will fall with this
low is still uncertain, as a slight change in the projected track
can totally change the forecast. For the next 5 days, however, less
than 0.25” of rain can be expected, with many areas seeing less
than 0.05”. For the 8-14 day outlook, temperatures are expected
to remain below normal, with precipitation near normal.
Soybean Seed Rot and Seedling Blight
Many different organisms cause seed rot and seedling blights.
Most of these organisms are soil-borne and a few are seed-borne.
Most seed rots and seedling blights proliferate in poorly drained,
cold (less than 58 degrees) and wet soils.
Seed Rot: Many times the infected seed will
not germinate. If the seed does germinate the radicle will become
infected and rot. The rot can be tan, brown, gray or black and the
seed or radicle will appear wet and mushy. Some of the organisms
that infect seed are Pythium, Fusarium, and Rhizoctonia.
Seedling blight: It is difficult to determine
which pathogen causes seedling blight in any one field. Many times
it can be a complex of Pythium, Rhizoctonia and Phytophthora.
Pythium can cause the seedlings to have a wet, rotted appearance,
while Phytophthora generally appears as a dry, dark rot
on the roots. Sunken, reddish-brown lesions on the hypocotyls are
most likely a Rhizoctonia infection. The Rhizoctonia
lesions are small when they first appear. As these lesions grow
they can girdle the stem, causing the soybean plant to die. If the
Rhizoctonia infected seedlings do not kick the bucket the
infection will weaken the stem and may cause the plant to lodge
after the pods form.
Make sure you use a fungicide seed treatment to protect seed
from these pathogens at planting. Do not plant soybeans too early
when soil temperatures are low. If soil temperatures are low the
seed will take longer to germinate and grow, thus allowing the pathogens
more time to enter the seed.
Potato Leafhopper Identification and Potential Damage
Potato leafhopper may soon show up in your alfalfa. Correct identification
is essential managing potato leafhopper in alfalfa.
Potato leafhopper is a lime-green insect about 1/8 inch long
and rides the storms that come from the south, looking for alfalfa
and other host plants. The adult females are strong flyers and move
from plant to plant laying 2-3 eggs per day. Bright yellow-green
nymphs (looking much like adults, but smaller and wingless) hatch
from the eggs to feed on plant juices. Nymphs and adults alike use
their needle-like mouthparts to suck juices, replacing them with
toxic saliva. Once you see V-shaped yellowing on the tips of the
leaves it's too late. Potato leafhopper has likely reduced plant
protein by 5% and yield by about .10 - .25 ton per acre pre cutting.
New seedings are at higher risk to potato leafhopper damage. Crop
stress from this insect can impact production this season as well
as affect production potential for subsequent years. The key is
to scout fields before the damage has already occurred. For more
information on potato leafhopper checkout our online publication,
Potato Leafhopper on Alfalfa Management Guide.
Potato Leafhopper Adult
Fusarium Head Blight Prediction Center Update
Department of Plant Pathology, Cornell University
The majority of
New York's winter wheat crop has reached or will
reach anthesis during the interval of May 31 to June 8. Predicted
risk of Fusarium head blight (FHB) has been low to moderate for
State during this interval, thus no general
advisory for a fungicidal spray to suppress FHB this year.
Wheat is most susceptible to infection by the fungus that causes
Fusarium head blight (scab) during anthesis (when anthers first
emerge) and at early stages of grain development. It is important
to note when your wheat reaches anthesis and to check the
Center each day.
Fungicidal Suppression Of Fusarium Head Blight:
Please note that the only fungicide available in
New York for suppression of Fusarium head blight
is propiconazole (4 fl. oz. per acre of Tilt or PropiMax applied
at 50% of anthers emerged on primary tillers). Fungicides
such as Caramba, Folicur, Proline, and Prosaro are not yet registered
for use on wheat in
New York. (June 3, 2009)
Fusarium Head Blight Risk Assessment Tool
NYS Soybean Rust Information Center Update
Department of Plant Pathology, Cornell University
2009 soybean rust detections to date have been on kudzu in
Texas as well as along the gulf coast including
Louisiana. Soybean rust disease incidence and
severity on kudzu in these states has been reported as low to medium.
Precipitation in the affected areas may lead to further spore deposition
Florida panhandle and eastern
Texas. Scouting in sentinel plots in the
Southeastern U.S. continues. Much of the
State soybean acreage has been planted
and begun to emerge. Soybean rust has not yet been detected on soybean
U.S. in 2009. Please visit us again
for future updates on soybean rust in the U.S. Updated May 26, 2009
NYS Soybean Rust Website
USDA Soybean Rust Website
Growing Degree Days in NYS
CURRENT Accumulated Growing degree days (48F Base):
March 1 - June 2,
Base 48 F
Base 50 F
*Indicates missing data
Growing degree Days for Peak (50%) Occurrence of Alfalfa Weevil
Stage or Event
Accumulated growing degree days (48F base temperature)
(Note: for alfalfa weevil predictions use Base Temp
Source: R.I. Carruthers
* Emergency contact information ("911", local hospital,
Chem. Spill emergency contact, other?) posted in central posting
* Maintain crop records by field, including variety, planting date,
pesticides used, nutrient inputs including manure, etc.
* Watch for winter annual and other early season weeds, any patches
of herbicide resistant weeds, weed escapes?
* Storage areas cleaned and ready to accept hay harvest?
* Determine plant populations, make notes on emergence
problems, plant vigor, growth stage
* Gaps in row? Check for seed corn maggot, wireworm, cutworm, armyworm,
seedling blights, birds, seed placement issues
* Check no-till fields/fields with high residue or weeds for slug
* Monitor for weeds, note presence of "who", "how many" and "where"
* Adjust post emergence weed control actions
* Monitor winter grains for crop stage (heading? anthesis?),
insect problems (cereal leaf beetle, armyworm) and foliar / head
* Evaluate crop for adequate stand and plant vigor
Alfalfa & Hay:
* Monitor alfalfa seedings for weeds, insects & diseases.
* Check regrowth of established alfalfa stands for alfalfa weevil,
potato leafhopper, weed and disease problems.
* Check windrows of recently harvested alfalfa for signs of alfalfa
weevil feeding damage and weevil life stage (instar cocoon).
* Storage areas cleaned and ready to accept incoming harvest?
* Evaluate stand emergence - seedling blights, seed corn
maggot, weed assessment, soybean aphid
Dairy Livestock Barn Fly Management:
* Sanitation, sanitation, sanitation - clean animal resting
areas, feed troughs, minimize source of moist organic matter i.e.
fly breeding areas in barn and in adjacent animal loafing yard
* Check waterers, drainage, roof gutters for leaks and potential
* Begin fly monitoring: install "3X5" index card fly speck monitoring
cards through out barn
* Order fly management materials: fly tapes, insecticide baits,
natural enemies (parasitoids)
* Check storage areas (bunk silos, etc.) for readiness
to accept first cutting
* Keep areas around storage bins and silos clean and mowed
* Note any repairs needed for recently used equipment:
tractors, tillage implements, planters, etc. as they are cleaned
* Service corn and soybean planter as needed. alfalfa harvesting
equipment, and tillage implements
* Calibrate manure spreaders - maintain records on amount spread
PESTICIDE EMERGENCY NUMBERS
Emergency responder information on pesticide spills
and accidents CHEMTREC: 800-424-9300
For pesticide information:
National Pesticide Information Center: 800-858-7378
To Report Oil and Hazardous Material Spills in New York
State_NYS Department of Environmental Conservation
Spill Response:_800-457-7362 (in NYS)_518-457-7362 (outside NYS)
Poison Control Centers: Poison Control
Centers nationwide: 800-222-1222
If you are unable to reach a Poison Control Center or obtain the
information your doctor needs, the office of the NYS Pesticide Coordinator
at Cornell University, 607-255-1866, may be able to assist you in
obtaining such information.
Mark Your Calendars
June 4, 2009 -- Small Grains Management Field Day, Musgrave Farm,
1256 Poplar Ridge Rd, Aurora, NY
July 7, 2009 -- Cornell Seed Growers Field Day,
July 15, 2009 -- Weed Science Field Day, Thompson Research Farm,
NY (morning program)
July 15, 2009 -- NYSABA Summer, BBQ, Musgrave Farm,
NY 12:00 noon
July 15, 2009 -- Weed Science Field Day, Musgrave Farm,
NY (afternoon program)
July 23, 2009 -- Aurora Farm Field Day, Musgrave Farm, 1256 Poplar
Ridge Rd, Aurora, NY
Aug. 10-14, 2009 --
Soil Health Training
Workshop, Ithaca, NY
Eastern NYS IPM Area Educator: Field Crops
Keith Waldron: NYS Livestock and Field
Crops IPM Coordinator
Phone: (315) 787 - 2432