->Home > fieldcrops > tag > pestrpt > pestrpt06

Weekly Field Crops Pest Report 2006

September 15, 2006 Volume 5 Number 20

1. View from the Field

2. Soybean Rust Sentinel Plots in 2006-A Summary

3. Do weeds indicated what insect pest may infest a corn field next year?

4. Late Season Soybean Disease Update

5. 2006 Eastern NYS Field Crops Pest Report Wrap-Up

6. Growing Degree Days in NYS

7. Clipboard Checklist

8. Contact Information

View From The Field

Eastern NYS
Ken Wise, NYS IPM

return to top

This is the last NYS Weekly Field Crops Pest Report for this season. I hope it was useful for your extension programming. We will follow-up with an evaluation survey soon. We look forward to your feedback. It will be very helpful to us when we prepare the pest report for the next season to have your suggestions.

This week at the Cornell Research Farm in Valatie I found some corn disease issues. Where deer had eaten off the end of the ears of corn common smut was able to establish. Common smut forms white, soft galls that can be found on most any plant part on the corn plant above the ground. It is suggested that the galls form where hail, animal damage or machinery have injured the plant. As the smut galls age they fill with dark brown to black spore masses. The good thing is that smut rarely kills the plant, and typically causes little if any yield loss.

Soybean Rust Sentinel Plots in 2006 - A Summary

Julie Dennis, NYS IPM and Mary McKellar, NE PDN

return to top

Weekly scouting took place since mid-June in 19 sentinel plots across New York State this summer. The soybean rust sentinel plot network was established primarily to serve as an early warning system for soybean producers across our region. While the current risk of soybean rust on soybeans in NY is extremely low, Mary McKellar, with the Northeast Plant Diagnostic Network and Gary Bergstrom, with the Department of Plant Pathology at Cornell, assure us of the many values of the sentinel plot efforts. First, data collected from the NY state sentinel plots in conjunction with data collected from sentinel plots across the U.S. this summer was uploaded to the USDA PIPE database. This data will be used to increase our knowledge of the epidemiology of the disease in the U.S. as well as assist in creating forecasting models to be used in future growing seasons. Second, the intensive sampling gave plant pathologists and extension field staff a better understanding of disease symptoms for several common, but usually sub-economic soybean disease pests. Diseases regularly observed in the sentinel plots this summer included Septoria brown spot, bacterial pustule, frog eye leaf spot, white mold, and downy mildew. Anthracnose and pod and stem blight, typical late season diseases, had also been observed. Additionally, two diseases not previously confirmed in New York State, soybean sudden death syndrome and brown stem rot, were also reported in sentinel plots this summer. Viral testing was conducted on select samples symptomatic for viral infections providing insight into some of the viruses that infect soybeans in our region. In addition, efforts were made to photograph many of these diseases to create a soybean disease image library that can be used for future outreach and education. Documenting disease occurrence across the soybean-growing regions of NY has definitely been a great bonus of the sentinel plot efforts in 2006. Mary offers a special thanks to all of the cooperators that volunteered their time scouting the 2006 soybean rust sentinel plots.

Do weeds indicate what insect pests may infest a corn field next year?

Ken Wise, NYS IPM

return to top

Conducting a weed survey may identify conditions attractive to certain insect pests. Some weeds serve as over-wintering sites for common stalk borer, hop-vine borer, and potato stem borer. The black cutworm moth lays eggs on several species of weeds in the spring. Larvae of these insects migrate from weeds to emerging corn in the spring. Here are some weeds that attract these insect pests:

Insect Pest

Weeds

Common stalk borer

ragweed and other large stemmed broadleaf weeds

Potato stem borer

quackgrass, green foxtail, barnyard grass, and dock

Hopvine borer

quackgrass and other grasses

Black cutworm

grasses, annual broadleaves such as common chickweed

Common billbug

yellow nutsedge

Late Season Soybean Disease Update

Julie Dennis, NYS IPM

return to top

Soybean Pod and stem blight and Anthracnose have both been observed in NY soybeans this year.

Soybean pod and stem blight is caused by a fungal pathogen that overwinters on crop residue. Spores may be splashed onto plants during rainfall or other wet conditions, and infection generally begins where the plant is injured. The disease produces dark lesions on the pod, petioles, and nodes of the stem. Warm and humid weather proliferate the disease late in the growing season. If soybean plants are left sitting in the field when they are ready to harvest, or if wet weather occurs late in soybean maturation, the risk of infection can increase. If seed becomes infected, seed quality may be significantly affected. This impact is of importance if soybean is grown for seed production, while yield or quality effects are likely minimal in soybeans produced for feed or for other commercial uses. Last October in NY, there were many observations of “moldy soybeans”, and these infections were likely soybean pod and stem blight. View a photo of soybean pod and stem blight.

Anthracnose is a fungal disease that survives in infested crop residue and in seed, and is favored by rainy and humid conditions. The disease typically appears late in the season on pods and stems. Symptoms on stems, pods, and petioles include dark blotches, streaks, or lesions. Sever infection can cause “tip blight”, where the uppermost leaves and pods turn yellow, or even dry up and die prematurely. View a photo of Anthracnose on soybean.

Management Options

  • When soybeans are ready to harvest, conduct it in a timely manner.

  • Use certified disease free seed.

  • Rotate soybean field every year with other crops.

  • Avoid planting in cool, wet soils.

  • Incorporate residue to reduce the risk of pod and stem blight.

2006 NYS Field Crops Pest Report Wrap-Up

Keith Waldron, NYS IPM

return to top

Congratulations! The 2006 growing season is nearly over. Hopefully it has been a very productive year for you and your crops. May the Yields and quality be with you!

While the season is still fresh in your mind take a few moments to update any field records including all inputs, outputs, observations, concerns, ideas for future efforts, questions, etc. A few moments in the next month or so to evaluate this season’s efforts can yield dividends towards optimizing your 2007 growing season plans.

How effective were any pest management actions? Were there major successes, or are there areas that need improvement? What worked?, What did not?, What resources did you find?, What questions remain?, What changes are recommended for the 2007 growing season? Documenting the process of crop protection decisions provides important feedback for assessing the value and impact of actions taken and for optimizing future management decisions.

How well did you use the “Steps of IPM”? i.e. correct pest identification, use of recommended sampling, and analysis guidelines, selection of management options / interventions, timely implementation of management actions to minimize or avoid pest impacts. IPM methods can help improve the economic and environmental efficiency of crop protection decisions if the steps outlined above are followed. For additional information on implementing an IPM program for alfalfa, field corn, winter wheat, soybeans, and dairy cattle, contact the Office of the Livestock and Field Crops IPM Coordinator, IPM Program, New York State Agricultural Experiment Station, Geneva, NY 14456.

See you next season!

Growing Degree Days in NYS

return to top

Accumulated Growing Degree Days for March 1 to August 2

Location

Base 50 F

Batavia

1661 (much data is missing)

Chazy

2032

Clifton Park

2078 (much data is missing)

Geneva

2099

Ithaca

1942

Prattsburg

1837

Redhook

2606 (much data is missing)

Source: NEWA

Clipboard Checklist

Keith Waldron-NYS IPM

return to top

General:

* Maintain crop records by field, including crop condition, inputs, observations, issues, concerns, etc.

* Check grain storage bins for temperature, moisture and air flow.

* Mow around storage bins, barn and farm facilities

* End of season review – what worked?, what did not?, what changes are recommended for the 2007 growing season?, what questions remain?

Alfalfa & Hay:

* Monitor fields for weeds and diseases record information on type and location, note stand condition for future cropping / rotation decisions.

Small Grains:

* Check grain storage bins for temp, moisture, air flow, drying conditions.

* Plant winter wheat after Hessian Fly-free date.

Field Corn:

• Harvest corn silage at 65 to 68% moisture and high moisture shelled at 25 to 30% grain, and high moisture ground-ear at 30 to 35% moisture.

• Record corn silage yields by field and quality by storage facility

• Take samples for forage analysis

• Take Soil Samples for fertility analysis

• Take Fall Weed Survey following harvest.

 Soybeans:

* Monitor for crop condition and growth stage, white mold, soybean aphids, natural enemies, foliar diseases, sudden death syndrome (Fusarium solani f. sp. glyines), brown stem rot (Phialophora gregata f.sp. sojae), soybean rust

* Harvest when soybeans reach safe storage moisture level of approximately 13%. Review combine settings and speeds to minimize seed damage

Livestock:

* Continue manure management and release of biological control agents (parasitic wasps) for house fly and stable fly control in barns

* Anticipate influx of house and stable flies into barns as temperatures cool

* Monitor young stock for cattle lice and mange mites

* Check condition of pastures and animals on pastures

- Evaluate need for face fly and stable fly control measures, adjust paddock rotation as needed. 

Equipment:

* Prepare combines for corn, soybeans

* Sharpen chopper knives. Check shear clearances, protective shields

* Note any repairs to fertilizer and pesticide application, and harvesting equipment as they are cleaned, lubricated, and winterized.

Contact Information

return to top

Julie Dennis: {aka the WNY Livestock and Field Crops Area IPM Educator formerly known as Julie Stavisky ;-)}
IPM Area Educator, Livestock and Field Crops, Western NY
Phone: (315) 331-8415
Fax: (315) 331-8411
Email: js38@cornell.edu

Keith Waldron: NYS Livestock and Field Crops IPM Coordinator
Phone: (315) 787 - 2432
Fax: (315) 787-2360
Email: jkw5@cornell.edu

Ken Wise: Eastern NYS IPM Area Educator: Field Crops and Livestock
Phone: (518) 434-1690
Fax: (518) 426-3316
Email: klw24@cornell.edu