June 22, 2006 Volume 5 Number 10
1. View from the Field
2. Be Ready for Potato Leafhopper Before Damage Occurs!
3. Soybean Aphid Monitoring
4. IPM for Stored Grain
5. How to Recognize Scab (Fusarium Head Blight) in Wheat
6. Soybean Rust Update
7. Growing Degree Days in NYS
8. Clipboard Checklist
9. Upcoming Meetings
10. Contact Information
View From The Field
Ken Wise, NYS IPM
Keith Waldron-NYS IPM
This week at the Cornell University Research Farm in Valatie
alfalfa weevil tip feeding was on the decline. I also found alfalfa
weevil cocoons in a few leaves. The following picture shows what
they look like:
This is a good indication that alfalfa weevil feeding by larvae
will soon end. Once they pupate (create a cocoon) the leaf feeding
by larvae is over.
Potato leafhopper in alfalfa remains low at the Cornell University
Research Farm in Valatie and SUNY Cobleskill Farm this week. While
doing a scout training in Orange County this week a new seeding
of alfalfa was nearing threshold for potato leafhopper. There were
lot’s of annual broadleaf weeds present including annual ragweed,
an alternate host for PLH. With this seasonal change from cool to
mid-summer temperatures potato leafhopper populations have the potential
to increase over the next several weeks. If you do not know what
they look like, here is a picture I took on Monday:
Pea aphid populations are on the rise in alfalfa. These tiny
insects are not typically an economic concern for NY forage alfalfa.
One reason these aphids are not a problem for NY alfalfa is because
they are considered “lunch” by many natural enemies including a
variety of predators, parasitoids, and fungal pathogens.
I saw my first fireflies blinking this last weekend. Fireflies
and corn rootworm have something in common. About the time you start
to see seeing firefly activity each summer, corn rootworm larvae
hatch from their overwintering egg stage and begin feeding on corn
Stephen Hadcock and I set up out a soybean sentinel plot to monitor
for Asian Soybean Rust and Soybean Aphids in Columbia County. We
discovered a disease that appears to be bacterial blight in V2 stage
soybean seedlings. Samples have been sent to Cornell’s Diagnostic
Clinic for confirmation. I have not found soybean aphids yet in
Nancy Glazier in Western NYS reports that soybeans range from
V1-V3 stage of growth. She states that 1 of 5 fields that were observed
had very low infestation levels of soybean aphids.
Soybean aphids were observed on V2 stage soybeans at SBR sentinel
site at Cornell's Musgrave Research farm in Poplar Ridge NY (central
NY). Several reports of low numbers of soybean aphid on V2 stage
soybeans. Soybean aphids observed at SBR sentinel site at Cornell's
Musgrave Research farm in Poplar Ridge NY (Molly Smartwood), in
Jefferson county (Mike Hunter), in Seneca county (John Mizro (ACS).
Waterloo). SBA populations are at trace to low levels, typically
0-5 SBA per plant, all wingless. Highest number observed on an individual
plant was 25 SBA. Jeff Miller reports the SBR sentinel plot in Oneida
county is disease and soybean aphid free this week.
PLH numbers low in alfalfa at the NYS Ag Experiment Farm in Geneva
(0-2 per 10 sweeps, 24 inch alfalfa), Musgrave Research farm (Aurora)
Aurora farm (0-3 per 10 sweeps, 6 inch alfalfa). No PLH nymphs found
at either location. Elson Shields suggests the recent thunderstorms
may have delivered a bunch of migrating adults - i.e. watch fields
Black cutworm and dingy cutworm problems have been reported this
week on V4 stage corn. Cutworm larval sizes have ranged from 1/2
inch to 1+ inches. Fields affected had weed control issues. Dan
Steward (WNYCMA) reports armyworm infestations in some western NY
corn stands. Fields affected were planted into a rye cover crop
that had a late April burn-down herbicide treatment.
Dairy Flies: The Cornell Veterinary Entomology Research crew
reports a marked increase in house fly populations in/around dairy
barns this week. Recent rains have contributed to the moist conditions
favorable to creation of successful fly breeding habitat. Higher
temperatures reduce the time required for house flies to develop
from egg to adult. Watch for fly populations to increase. Timely
intervention with sanitation will slow population build up. Stable
fly populations appear to be relatively low at this time. House
flies have a shorter life cycle (egg to adult) than stable flies
so tend to build up to higher populations more quickly. Watch for
possible increases in stable fly populations following movement
of storm fronts as these insects can hitch rides on weather systems.
For animals on pasture - face fly populations are on the increase.
Higher numbers of horse flies have also been observed.
Be Ready for Potato Leafhopper before
the damage occurs!
Ken Wise, NYS IPM
As temperatures increase and weather fronts roll through NY,
so does the risk of potato leafhopper populations reaching levels
damaging to alfalfa yields and quality. Do you know what to do if
a field reaches an action threshold for potato leafhopper in alfalfa?
Here are the management options for potato leafhopper in alfalfa!
Option 1: Early Harvest
You can harvest the alfalfa early to control potato leafhoppers
if the field is within a week to ten days of a scheduled harvest.
By harvesting the alfalfa early prevent potato leafhopper from reaching
infestation levels that can cause yield and quality loss to the
forage. Make sure that the whole field is harvested at the same
time. If a field is not clean harvested then the alfalfa that has
not been cut will serve as a refuge for potato leafhoppers and can
re-infest; thus severely damaging alfalfa re-growth.
Option 2: Use an Insecticide
To protect yield and health of new seedings and established alfalfa,
insecticide control can be warranted when a field is not within
a week of harvest. For selection of an insecticide consult the current
issue of Cornell Guide for Integrated Field Crop Management. Remember
to read the label and be aware of blooms, bees and the days until
Option 3: Plant Potato Leafhopper Resistant Alfalfa
A third option for control is planting potato leafhopper resistant
alfalfa. Obviously, it is a little late for this season’s crop but
something to consider for future seedings. Research has shown that
potato leafhopper resistant alfalfa is consistently higher in quality
than susceptible alfalfa varieties with or without potato leafhopper
pressure. PLH resistant varieties yields are comparable and generally
better than susceptible varieties when PLH are present. A bonus
benefit is that currently available alfalfa varieties with PLH resistance
have come down in price over the past several years.
For management information check our on-line IPM guides:
for Potato Leafhopper in Alfalfa
Soybean Aphid Monitoring
Keith Waldron-NYS IPM
Soybean aphids (SBA) were observed on V2 stage soybeans at several
NY locations this week (Aurora, Farmington, Geneva, Waterloo, and
Watertown). Soybean aphids have not been observed in eastern NY
so far this season. Individuals monitoring soybean rust sentinel
sites have been asked to report presence and abundance of soybean
aphids. This information is being added to the NY information for
soybean rust / soybean aphid available on the National USDA PIPE
How much of an issue will SBA populations be in NY this year
remains to be seen.
SBA threshold guideline - 250 per plant at or near R1.
This action threshold is based on an average of aphids per plant
over 20-30 plants sampled throughout the field. Regular field visits
are required to determine if aphid populations are increasing. Midwestern
research has found that treating earlier than this threshold in
most cases does not pay for itself. But if you have aphids
at flowering, the SBA population is increasing compared to the previous
weeks count, no or insufficient numbers of natural enemies are present,
or other limiting factors are present such as drought, the treatment
of SBA may be warranted. Yield loss is due to pod abortion and once
pods are gone, there is no recovery of yield other than getting
seed a bit bigger. This recommendation has held up well over the
past 4 years.
Note: During early to mid-vegetative stages of soybean growth,
economic benefit from insecticide application is not likely.
Plus, using an insecticide too early in the season may jeopardize
the establishment of natural enemies in the field. When scouting
the early vegetative stages of soybeans for soybean aphid, it is
just as important to watch for the aphid’s natural enemies, including
ladybugs, syrphid fly larvae, parasitic wasps, and fungal pathogens.
We’ll highlight these biological control agents over the next several
issues of the Pest Report, so stay tuned!
Your observations will help document SBA presence, abundance,
and help identify locations with potential concerns. If you wish
to share your SBA observations send comments to Keith Waldron (email@example.com).
Information on date, location, average SBA population number, plant
growth stage, and aphid form (winged or wingless) will be helpful.
Feel free to include additional commentary such as presence of natural
enemies, crop condition, other pests observed.
The USDA recommends the following protocol be used to monitor
In sentinel plots, note the latitude and longitude with
a GPS unit.
Select 20 plants at random, each from a different location
(not consecutive down the row) so that the 20 plant-sample is
representative of the entire plot. Identify the growth
stage of 5 of the 20 plants.
Examine the entire plant beginning with the growing point
(newest trifoliate) for soybean aphids. If plants are
in vegetative growth (no pods or flowers) generally only the
growing point needs to be examined. As flowering and pod
set occur, examine the entire plant, including pods. Spend
no more than 30 sec to examine an individual plant.
Count aphids per plant when they are below 250 and estimate
aphid density when aphid numbers exceed 250. Apterous (wingless)
aphids are assumed to be present. Note whether alate (winged)
aphids were also observed. Notes could also be used to indicate
if any predators or parasitized aphids (mummies) are present
or other such noteworthy observations on crop growth and field
IPM for Stored Grain
Ken Wise, NYS IPM
Wheat harvest time is approaching quickly. Will you be ready?
Now would be a good time to prioritize management activities to
prepare for your grain harvest. Number one priority? Sanitation
- the key to keeping insect pests out of your stored grains. The
following is a step by step method for IPM in stored grain:
Clean grain handing equipment (augers, combines, wagons,
scoops, and trucks).
Clean inside the grain bin (remember to clean under the
false floor). Mice, moths, weevils and much more can survive
under the false floor.
Clean around the outside of the grain bin. Mow weeds, and
remove all spilled grain and debris 6 to 10 feet from around
the grain bin. This will remove all habitats and minimize food
sources of interest to potential grain bin pests including insects
Seal all cracks and crevices. Cracks are prime locations
for insects to enter grain bins.
Cover fans when they are not being used. Insects can enter
the grain bin this way also.
Use a registered sanitizing insecticide spray in and around
the structure after cleaning.
Never store new grain with old grain.
Dry the grain bin before adding new grain. Insect pests
need moisture to survive.
Level the surface after filling the grain bin. Moisture
accumulates in a grain peak. Microbial activity
in the wet area will heat up and attract secondary insect pests.
Do not fill grain bin all the way to the top. Leave a few
feet for aeration.
Aerate the grain to at least the ambient temperature. The
hotter the grain gets the faster insect pests can
develop. Stored grain insect pests development slows when the
temperature falls below 500 F.
Monitor grain for insect pests every 20 days from spring
till fall and every 30 days in the winter.
If you discover an infestation of insect pests you may consider
an insecticide application. Select a NYS registered
product for your stored grain. READ THE LABEL.
Keep areas around grain bins mowed to limit rodent hiding
The following are common insect pests of stored grains: Common
Insect Pest of Stored Grain, Granary weevil , Saw tooth grain beetle,
Red flower beetle, Larger cabinet beetle , Lesser grain borer, Rice
weevil, Indian-meal moth, Flat grain beetle, Angoumois grain moth,
Confused flower beetle
How to Recognize Scab (Fusarium head
blight) on Wheat
Ken Wise, NYS IPM
One of the most devastating diseases of wheat is Scab or also
called “Fusarium head blight.” This disease infects the grain head
at flowering. The disease builds up in corn, wheat and other grain
residues. Research by Dr Bergstrom and Shields (Cornell) has discovered
Fusarium spores are carried up into the atmosphere during the day
and settle out across the landscape at night. If it rains at flowering
and spores are present there is a good chance the grain will become
infected with the disease. The first symptoms of Fusarium head blight
occur shortly after flowering. Diseased wheat heads exhibit premature
bleaching as the pathogen progresses. One or more spikelets located
in the top, middle, or bottom of the head may be bleached. Over
time, the premature bleaching of the spikelets may progress throughout
the entire head. If the environment is warm and moist, aggregations
of light pink/salmon colored spores may appear on the rachis and
glumes of individual spikelets. Later in the season, bluish- black
spherical bodies may appear on the surface of affected spikelets.
As symptoms progress, the fungus colonizes the developing grain
causing it to shrink and wrinkle inside the head. Often, the infected
kernels have a rough, wilted appearance, ranging in color from pink,
soft-gray, to light-brown.
Soybean Rust Update
Observation and Outlook - Disease Last Modified: 06/22/06
Scouting has begun this week on 19 sentinel plots located in
Cayuga, Chautauqua, Chemung, Chenango, Columbia, Genesee, Jefferson,
Montgomery, Oneida, Onondaga, Ontario, Seneca, Tompkins, Wayne,
and Wyoming Counties. See the
New York Soybean Rust Information Center for more information.
The current risk of soybean rust infection in New York is extremely
low. Future risk in New York will depend on rust build-up in the
southern U.S., especially in commercial soybean fields. To date,
in 2006, soybean rust has been reported on kudzu in five counties
in Alabama, 12 counties in Florida, and four counties in Georgia.
Although rust was confirmed in a sentinel soybean plot in southeastern
Florida, Florida officials feel that the overall spore production
in the state is still very low. Currently, there are no known reports
of rust on commercially planted soybean in 2006. Many of the southern
states are experiencing hotter and drier than normal conditions
reducing the likelihood of viable spore dispersal. A report regarding
Mexico indicated that rust had occurred earlier in the year (winter
season seed production) before any commercial soybeans were planted
in Mexico or the U.S. There is no evidence to date suggesting that
airborne spores originating in Mexico have resulted in soybean rust
infection in Texas or other U.S. states. Last updated (June 21,
Growing Degree Days in NYS
Ken Wise NYS IPM
Accumulated Growing Degree Days for March 1 to June 14
Base 48 F
Base 50 F
460*Much data missing
*indicates missing data
Keith Waldron-NYS IPM
* Update crop records by field, including pesticides used, nutrient
inputs including manure, growth and development observations, other
- Record hay crop yields by field and
quality by storage facility; take samples for forage analysis
- Inventory remaining corn silage and
allocate forages for summer feeding
* Clean and prepare storage areas for small grain harvest
* Adjust pasture rotation, check fencing, water sources
* Make plans for fun Fourth of July activity
* Monitor fields for crop growth and condition, seed corn maggot,
wireworm, cutworm, seedling blights, birds, armyworm
* Evaluate weeds and adjust post emergence treatments
- note presence of triazine resistant annual broadleaf weeds
-Cultivate or treat if necessary
* Pre-Nitrogen Sidedress Soil Test and apply sidedress as needed
* Monitor for crop growth and condition, insect (cereal leaf beetle,
armyworm, European corn borer) and disease problems Fusrium (scab)
and other head and leaf blights)
Alfalfa & Hay:
* Monitor alfalfa seedings for crop growth and condition, weeds,
potato leafhopper & diseases.
* Check established alfalfa stands for potato leafhopper, weed and
- Take alfalfa stand counts while regrowth is short (if not done
earlier in the season)
* Check stand establishment, crop growth and condition, weed control
* Evaluate stand for uniformity,seed corn maggot, wireworm, seedling
blights, birds, planter problems, drainage issues
* Monitor for soybean aphid, soybean rust, presence of natural enemies
Dairy Livestock Barn Fly Management:
* Sanitation, sanitation, sanitation - clean animal resting areas,
feed troughs, minimize source of moist organic matter i.e. fly breeding
areas in barn and in adjacent animal loafing yard
* Check water sources, drainage, roof gutters for leaks and potential
* Collect and evaluate "3X5" index card fly speck monitoring cards.
Record results for future comparisons. Replace with new cards
* Evaluate animals for stable fly harassment (10 stable flies per
* Replace fly sticky tapes as needed, check insecticide bait traps
* Check condition of pastures and animals on pastures
- Evaluate need for face fly and stable fly control measures
- Insecticidal ear tags for heifers (non-lactating animals) on pasture
- Adjust pasture rotation, check fencing, water sources
* Note any repairs needed for recently used equipment: tractors,
harvest equipment and wagons, etc. as they are cleaned and serviced.
* Calibrate manure spreaders - maintain records on amount spread
* Prepare small grain combining equipment or arrange for custom
July 6 - Thursday - NY Weed Science Field Day, Valatie Research
Farm. Valatie, NY: 9:30 am- Noon
July 6 - Thursday - Seed Growers' Field Day, NYSIP Foundation
Seed Barn, Ithaca, NY (791 Dryden Road, Route 366)
July 12 - Wednesday - NY Weed Science Field Day, Robert B. Musgrave
Research Farm, Aurora, NY (Poplar Ridge Road, connects 90 and 34B)
11 am – 1 pm Chicken BBQ, Tour 1:00pm to 5:00pm.
July 13 - Thursday - NY Weed Science Field Day, H. C. Thompson
Research Farm, Freeville, NY (10 miles Northeast of Ithaca, Fall
Creek Road, Rt. 366 extension) 8:00 am – Noon
July 20 - Thursday - Aurora Field Day, Robert B. Musgrave Research
Farm, Aurora, NY 9:00am – 3:30pm
Julie Stavisky: IPM Area Educator, Livestock and Field Crops,
Phone: (315) 331-8415
Fax: (315) 331-8411
Keith Waldron: NYS Livestock and Field Crops IPM Coordinator
Phone: (315) 787 - 2432
Fax: (315) 787-2360
Ken Wise: Eastern NYS IPM Area Educator: Field Crops and Livestock
Phone: (518) 434-1690
Fax: (518) 426-3316