September 9, 2005 Volume 4 Number 21
1. View from the Field
2. Harvesting Soybeans Soon? Think Stored Grain
3. What is an Alfalfa Snout Beetle?
4. Fall Weed Survey for Alfalfa
5. NYS Growing Degree Days
6. Clipboard Checklist
7. Soybean Rust Update
8. Contact Information
Next week will be the last issue
of the NYS IPM Weekly Field Crops Pest Report for 2005. We plan
to continue this publication next growing season. We will compile
a web-linked index of all the issues and articles we published
this year. We will also follow-up with a survey on how effective
this publication is to your extension programming in the next
Soybeans Soon? Think Stored Grain Pests!
Ken Wise, NYS
It is time to start CLEANING your
grain bins. Sanitation is the key to keeping insect pests out
of your stored grains. Soybean harvest is not as far off as
you may think so knowing what you need to do is important. The
following is a step by step method for IPM in stored grain:
1. Clean grain handing equipment (augers, combines, wagons,
scoops, and trucks).
2. Clean inside the grain bin (remember to clean under the
false floor). Mice, moths, weevils and much more can survive
under the false floor.
3. Clean around the outside of the grain bin. Remove all
weeds, spilled grain and debris 6 to 10 feet from around the
grain bin. This will remove all habitats that can support a
grain bin pest problem.
4. Seal all cracks and crevices. Cracks are prime locations
for insects to enter grain bins.
5. Cover fans when they are not being used. Insects can enter
the grain bin this way also.
6. Use a registered sanitizing insecticide spray in and around
the structure after cleaning.
7. Never store new grain with old grain.
8. Dry the grain bin before adding new grain. Insect pests
need moisture to survive.
9. Level the surface after filling the grain bin. Moisture
accumulates in a grain peak. Microbial activity in the wet area
will heat up and attract secondary insect pests.
10. Do not fill grain bin all the way to the top. Leave a
few feet for aeration.
11. Aerate the grain to at least the ambient temperature.
The hotter the grain gets the faster insect pests can develop.
Stored grain insect pests development slows when the temperature
falls below 500 F.
12. Monitor grain for insect pests every 20 days from spring
till fall and every 30 days in the winter.
13. If you discover an infestation of insect pests you may
consider an insecticide application. Select a NYS registered
product for your stored grain. READ THE LABEL.
14. Keep areas around grain bins mowed to limit rodent hiding
Common Insect Pest of Stored Grain
Saw tooth grain beetle
Red flower beetle
Larger cabinet beetle
Lesser grain borer
Flat grain beetle
Angoumois grain moth
Confused flower beetle
IPM in Kentucky Farm Stored Grain
IPM Tactics for On-Farm Stored Grain
Improve Stored Grain Through IPM
Beetle Monitoring Opportunity?
Ken Wise, NYS IPM Keith
Waldron, NYS IPM
Short, chlorotic alfalfa? Alfalfa
stands showing signs of premature senescence?
Do you grow
alfalfa in Oswego, Jefferson, Cayuga, Wayne, Lewis, St. Lawrence,
Clinton, Essex or Franklin Counties?
If you are in one of the above counties where ASB has been
alfalfa fields can begin to show symptoms of ASB
larval feeding damage in the fall.
Alfalfa snout beetle (ASB) is a very serious root-feeding
weevil that is found only in northern New York State and southern
Ontario. Adult ASB feed on leaves and stems, and the larvae
feed on the roots of alfalfa and clover.
ASB is one of the few pests that can completely destroy an
alfalfa field. Some growers have been forced to grow other forages
than alfalfa because of the destructive damage by this insect
to alfalfa and certain clovers. Adult ASB are mottled gray,
humpbacked, 1/2 inch long, do not fly, and are all females.
Adult ASB emerges in the spring to feed on new shoots from the
alfalfa crown. (Note: above ground active adult ASB is only
a small portion of the infestation). ASB larvae live under the
soil surface for about 2 years. When adults emerge in the spring
they migrate in mass numbers often in a northeast or northwest
Legless white larvae, are a 1/2 inch long, can be found
within a foot of the soil surface in mid to late summer and
feeding on alfalfa roots. Larvae feed on side roots, and
girdle the main taproot causing death to the plant. As mentioned
earlier, ASB root feeding and systemic root diseases can cause
alfalfa stands to exhibit sign of early senescence in the fall.
In counties with confirmed ASB infestations, fields showing
these symptoms should be sampled for ASB. If snout beetles are
present their larvae should be easily found on alfalfa tap roots.
THIS MEANS CHECK NOW! During late summer and early fall the
larvae move deeper in the soil where they spend the winter.
The following spring the larvae move 10-12 inches from the surface,
pupate by mid-summer and become inactive adults, which remain
in the soil until the following spring. To combat ASB the only
current line of defense is to practice intensive crop management.
Rotating alfalfa and non-susceptible crops is very important.
Rotation to non-hosts limits the ASB from developing large infestations
in field. ASB has host plants other than alfalfa that make eradication
impossible. Host plants for ASB are: alfalfa, red clover, dock,
wild carrot, quackgrass, and white clover. Non-host cultivated
crops for ASB are: corn, wheat, oats, soybeans, potatoes, and
birdsfoot trefoil. Growers should plan to crop alfalfa for 2
to 3 seasons, using clear seedlings, and then rotate with non-host
cultivated crops for 2 or 3 successive years. New infestations
can result from emigration of ASB adults from previously infested
fields or by ASB being transported in contaminated debris, soil,
machinery, etc. from other farms, fields or homes. Take precautions
to limit artificial transport of ASB by cleaning equipment between
fields and farms. Limit transporting possibly infested hay bales,
gravel and soil to non-infested sites. Research is continuing
to identify sources of host plant root resistance and biological
control options to ASB(Don Viands, Julie Hansen and Elson Shields).
The use of an insecticide for the control of this insect has
not been shown to be effective and none are registered
for this purpose in NYS
Survey for Alfalfa
Ken Wise, NYS IPM
In the fall as your alfalfa is
putting energy back into their roots for the winter it is a
good idea to go and look at what weeds might be in the alfalfa
stand. This can help you make decisions about what to do with
your alfalfa fields the next season. You will want to conduct
a weed survey. Observe weed infestations in at least 5 locations
chosen at random in a 40-acre field. Divide fields larger than
40 acres into equal parts for scouting. Keep a record of significant
weed infestations by drawing their location and logging predominant
species composition on a map of the field. Check unique features
such as droughty slopes, poorly drained areas, field borders,
and fence rows for weed infestations. These areas can be major
sources of weed contamination. Visually estimate significant
weed infestations (by individual species) using the following
Weed Rating Scale:
Determine the severity of the most common
Few: Weeds present, but very few plants in the field.
There are enough to produce seed but not enough to cause significant
Common: Weeds are dispersed throughout the field.
There are up to 5 grass or 3 broadleaf annual weeds per sq.
ft. or 0.3 perennial or biennial weeds per sq. ft. (3 per sq.
yd.) or scattered spots of severe infestation.
Abundant: Fairly uniform concentrations of 6 to 20
grass or 4 to 10 broadleaf annual weeds per sq. ft. or 0.5 to
1.0 perennial or biennial weeds per sq. ft. (6 to 20 per sq.
Extreme:Concentrations of more than 2 grass or 1 perennial
or biennial weeds per sq. ft. (20 grassy or 10 perennial or
biennial plant sq. yd.). Large areas of severe weed infestation.
Clear stands of alfalfa should have at least 5 healthy crowns
per sq. ft. but grasses can be important in maintaining quality
and quantity of forage in thinning alfalfa stands. Consider
crop rotation for alfalfa stands with less than 4 vigorous alfalfa
crowns per sq. ft. Dont forget to check areas where there are
many weeds for diseases which may have thinned the stand. If
the field needs to be rotated this information will be very
helpful in future selection of appropriate disease resistant
March 1 - September 7, 2005
Base 50 F
* missing data
production activity records by field, including harvest date,
pesticides used, nutrient inputs including manure, etc.
Check fall harvest equipment, sharpen chopper knives, check
shear clearances, check protective shields on all harvest machinery
Prepare bunkers, silos for incoming silage.
Clean, disinfect and prepare grain bins and dryers.
Mow weeds around barn, grain storage bins, farm buildings,
pastures, control weeds, brambles.
Alfalfa & Hay:
Monitor fields for weeds and diseases: record information
on type and location for future cropping decisions.
Record hay yields by field and quality by storage facility;
take samples for forage analysis
Observe corn for weeds, stalk rots / lodging, and nutrient
and moisture deficiencies
Harvest corn silage at 65 to 70% moisture and high moisture
shelled at 25 to 30% grain, and high moisture ground-ear at
30 to 35% moisture.
Record corn silage yields by field and quality by storage
facility, take samples for forage analysis
Take Soil Samples for fertility analysis
Take Fall Weed Survey following harvest.
Monitor for pod, stem and foliar diseases.
Plant Winter Wheat (after fly-free date.
House and stable fly populations may increase in barns
and confinement areas in the next few weeks. This occurs as
these flies look for warmer habitats when cooler temperatures
begin to occur.
Gary C. Bergstrom, Professor-Department of Plant
To date, (Sept. 1) positive confirmations
of soybean rust have been reported in Alabama, Florida, Georgia,
Mississippi and South Carolina. As the New York soybean crop
is approaching maturity, the risk of infection remains low,
and no fungicide application is advocated in 2005. Weekly inspection
of sentinel plots in New York State has concluded for the season.
Spore trapping (from rainwater) and targeted inspections of
commercial soybean and vegetable bean fields will continue in
order to determine whether spores of the soybean rust fungus
are carried into New York State by air currents from infested
areas of the southern U.S.
Julie Stavisky: IPM Area Educator,
Livestock and Field Crops, Western NY
Phone: (315) 331-8415
Fax: (315) 331-8411
Keith Waldron: NYS Livestock and Field Crops IPM Coordinator
Phone: (315) 787 - 2432
Fax: (315) 787-2360
Ken Wise: Eastern NYS IPM Area Educator: Field Crops and Livestock
Phone: (518) 434-1690
Fax: (518) 426-3316