->Home > fieldcrops > tag > pestrpt > pestrpt05

NY Weekly Field Crop Pest Report, 2005

September 2, 2005 Volume 4 Number 20

1. View from the Field

2. Certified Seed and Fungicide Seed Treatment are Good Insurance for Winter Wheat

3. Soybean Pod and Stem Stem Blight

4. Fall IPM Alfalfa Assessment

5. NYS Growing Degree Days

6. Clipboard Checklist

7. Contact Information

View from the Field

Eastern NYS,
Ken Wise

return to top

This week I was in Essex County looking at some organic soybeans. The marathon variety looked very good. The growers had most of the weeds under control with a few cultivation passes earlier in the growing season. There were still a few aphids on the plants and lady beetles lingering for dinner.

Certified seed and fungicide seed treatment are good insurance for winter wheat

Julie Stavisky, NYS IPM

return to top

Soilborne fungal disease occurrence on roots, stems, and crowns of winter wheat are generally not severe when wheat growers rotate with non-cereal crops. However, low levels of soilborne and seedborne fungal diseases can cause problems with stand establishment. A stand that is not well established in the fall will have a harder time making it through the winter, and may not be as quick to green up in the spring.

Seedling disease threats can largely be prevented with the use of fungicide-treated seed. These threats include the smut diseases that may be present on the surface of the seed or deep inside the embryo of the seed. Also, several soil-dwelling disease agents can cause plant roots and/or crowns to rot before the plant becomes established. In addition, seed fungicide treatments can aid in the suppression of early foliar diseases such as powdery mildew in the fall.

Fungicide-treated seed is widely available commercially, or treatments of fungicides can be made on-farm. The most effective treatments combine a systemic fungicide and a protectant fungicide. For specific reference to chemicals, please visit the Cornell Guide for Integrated Field Crop Management.

Another key tactic for good stand establishment is to plant certified seed. Use of certified seed assures a grower that seed meets high state and national standards for purity, identity, and freedom from noxious weed seeds and seedborne diseases.

Soybean Pod and Stem Blight

Ken Wise, NYS IPM

return to top

Many organisms can cause soybean pod and stem blight (Diaporthe and Phomopsis). These fungal organisms overwinter on crop residue from the previous season and can infect the plant. The disease produces dark lesions on the pod, petioles, and nodes of the stem. Warm and humid weather proliferate the disease late in the growing season. If soybean plants are left sitting in the field when they are ready to harvest, or if wet weather occurs late in soybean maturation, the risk of infection can increase. If seed becomes infected, seed quality is significantly affected.

Management Actions

•When soybeans are ready to harvest conduct it in a timely manner.

•Use certified disease free seed.

•Rotate soybean field every year with other crops.

•Do not plant in cool, wet soils.

•Incorporate residue to reduce the risk of pod and stem blight.

Where do Potato Leafhoppers go in the Fall?

Ken Wise, NYS IPM

return to top

In late summer and early fall, potato leafhoppers migrate back to the southern United States. Potato leafhoppers over-winter on pines and numerous other host plants in the southern and southeastern United States. For more information, see Potato Leafhopper on Alfalfa Management Guide

Fall IPM Alfalfa Assessment
Ken Wise, NYS IPM

return to top

Fall stand counts are an indication of the health of your alfalfa crop. There are a number of pests and crop management issues that can reduce a stand count in alfalfa. The following are guidelines for stand counts in NYS:

 

Crowns per square foot

Harvest Year

Optimum Stand

Adequate Stand

New Spring Seeding

25-40

12-20

1st hay year

12-20

6-10

2nd hay year

8-12

4-6

3rd and older

4-8

2-5

Fall scouting before the first hard frost can also reveal pest problems. If you find yellow to brown plants it may indicate several different disease problems. These could range from a wide variety of disease problems including, verticillum wilt, leaf spots, fusarium wilt, anthracnose and more. An inspection of the root system can also indicatedisease problems. Yellow, reddish-brown to black discolored or damaged roots may indicate disease problems such as phytopthora root rot or verticillium wilt. Premature senescence of alfalfa stands may indicate stress damage by Alfalfa Snout Beetle larvae from those counties with confirmed infestations.

NYS Growing Degree Days

return to top

March 1 - September 1, 2005

Location

Base 50 F

Batavia

1988*

Chazy

1913

Clifton Park

2568

Geneva

2115

Ithaca

2037

Prattsburg

1916*

* missing data

Source: http://newa.nysaes.cornell.edu/

Clipboard Checklist

return to top

General:

• Maintain crop production activity records by field, including harvest date, pesticides used, nutrient inputs including manure, etc.

• Check fall harvest equipment, sharpen chopper knives, check shear clearances, check protective shields on all harvest machinery

• Check bunkers and silos. Prepare for corn silage.

• Mow weeds around barn, grain storage bins, farm buildings, pastures, control weeds, brambles.

Alfalfa & Hay:

• Continue monitoring for potato leafhopper -harvest early or spray on basis of need.

• Monitor fields for weeds and diseases: record information on type and location for future cropping decisions.

• Harvest third cutting of alfalfa about 40 days after second harvest.

• Record hay yields by field and quality by storage facility; take samples for forage analysis

Field Corn:

• Observe corn for weeds, stalk rots / lodging, and nutrient and moisture deficiencies

Soybeans:

• Monitor for soybean aphid (SBA), soybean rust, pod, stem and foliar diseases. When checking for SBA, look for winged forms as an indication that the population may soon leave the field.

Livestock:

• Continue manure management and release of biological control agents (parasitic wasps) for house fly and stable fly control.

• Monitor young stock for cattle lice and mange mites

• Check condition of pastures and animals on pastures:

-Evaluate need for face fly, horn fly, and stable fly control measures

Contact Information

return to top

Julie Stavisky: IPM Area Educator, Livestock and Field Crops, Western NY
Phone: (315) 331-8415
Fax: (315) 331-8411
Email: js38@cornell.edu

Keith Waldron: NYS Livestock and Field Crops IPM Coordinator
Phone: (315) 787 - 2432
Fax: (315) 787-2360
Email: jkw5@cornell.edu

Ken Wise: Eastern NYS IPM Area Educator: Field Crops and Livestock
Phone: (518) 434-1690
Fax: (518) 426-3316
Email: klw24@cornell.edu