June 10, 2005 Volume 4 Number 8
1. View from the Field
2. Soybean Aphid Season Opener
3. Potato Leafhopper has Arrived
4. Corn Skips and Flying Pests
5. Are Slugs a Threat to Corn and Soybeans this
6. Growing Degree Days in NYS
7. Clipboard Checklist
8. Upcoming Meetings
9. Contact Information
From The Field
Julie Stavisky, NYS IPM
Ken Wise, NYS IPM
Keith Waldron, NYS IPM
The potato leafhopper challenge lead to some heated competition this
year! And the winner is... Nancy Glazier (NWNY Team)! Nancy found PLH on
Saturday, June 4th. Since then, reports from several
locations in the state confirm the arrival of PLH in alfalfa (Genesee
County, Oneida County, Ontario County). There are no reports of nymphs
Following the first report of soybean aphid on soybean plants from
Orleans County on Tuesday June 7th, a flurry of reports have come in.
SBA has been seen on soybeans in Cayuga County, Ontario County, Genesee
County, and Wayne County. I found nearly as many ladybugs as plants with
SBA in one field in Wayne County.
The hot, dry weather seems to be favorable for cereal leaf beetles.
Mike Stanyard (NWNY Team) has received many reports of CLB in Wayne
County. So far, they are below threshold on wheat and spring oats. CLB
have been reported to be prevalent in Cayuga County, too.
While having an Organic Wheat and Soybean TAg meeting in Essex County
this week we discovered powdery mildew on hard white winter wheat. About
80% of the plants were infected and 70% of the flag leaves were covered
with the mildew. Organic soybean fields were starting to get both annual
broadleaf weeds and perennial grasses (Quack). The producers were
planning on blind cultivating the fields before the beans were in the
hook stage with a rotary hoe and tine weed at the fourth leaf stage.
They are also planning on row cultivating for the quackgrass that was
starting to emerge in the fields.
First sightings of fireflies aka lightning bugs observed in several
central NY counties late last week. Why noteworthy for field croppers?
Fireflies are generally first observed about the same time that corn
rootworm (CRW) eggs begin to hatch. So for your continuous corn
fields…..be on the lookout for signs of CRW feeding on young (knee high)
corn over the next several weeks. First clue that CRW may be causing
problems a hard to explain symptom of drought stress. IN this case dig
plants and check roots for damage.
Aside from being visible in NY summer nights…. What else do you know
about fireflies? Friend, foe, neutral? According to
Files: “Firefly larvae are predaceous and have been observed feeding
mostly on earthworms, snails and slugs. Larvae can detect a snail or
slug slime trail, and follow it to the prey. After locating their future
meal, they inject an anesthetic type substance through hollow ducts in
the firefly's mandibles into their prey in order to immobilize and
eventually digest it. Multiple larvae have also been observed attacking
large prey items, such as large earthworms. Other observations suggest
larvae sometimes scavenge dead snails, worms and similar organic
matter.” Who knew?
See also -
Fireflies – Nominated for the State Insect of Indiana?
aphid season opener
Stavisky, NYS IPM
aphid season is here! Last week, soybean aphids were seen on buckthorn,
the local overwintering host. This week, they’ve been observed in
aphids can give soybean fields the 1-2 punch, since not only are the
aphids that spent the winter here a threat, weather patterns can deposit
huge numbers of aphids in a very short time.
you know when soybean aphids are present in soybeans? Look carefully at
the undersides of soybean leaves. The aphids are usually seen in small
clusters near the leaf veins. They are tiny, 1/16” long at their
largest, with distinctive black cornicles (tail pipes). Soybean aphids
are the only aphids to successfully colonize soybean plants.
early to mid-vegetative stages of soybean growth, economic benefit from
insecticide application is not likely. Plus, using an insecticide too
early in the season may jeopardize the establishment of natural enemies
in the field. When scouting the early vegetative stages of soybeans for
soybean aphid, it is just as important to watch for the aphid’s natural
enemies, including ladybugs, syrphid fly larvae, parasitic wasps, and
fungal pathogens. We’ll highlight these biological control agents over
the next several issues of the Pest Report, so stay tuned! During late
vegetative stages and early R stages, the economic threshold is 250
aphids per plant, though this only holds true if aphid populations are
still on the rise.
There is a new tool this year from the University of Minnesota that
deserves our attention. The SAGE model, or Soybean Aphid Growth
Estimator, makes a prediction about how fast aphid populations may build
up in soybeans given aphid density per plant and high and low
temperatures for today and the next 6 days. For more information, check
MN Soybean Production
Leafhopper in New York
Wise, NYS IPM
leafhopper has been discovered in Western and Central NYS. While they
are at very low numbers potato leafhopper populations can build very
quickly with the very warm weather we have recently received.
Do you know what potato leafhopper looks like? Remember adults are
bright lime green, 1/8 inch long and can fly. Potato leafhopper nymphs
are yellowish-green and look similar to the adult but do not have wings.
More to come on next week’s issue!
For management information on potato leafhopper check our on-line guide:
Potato Leafhopper on Alfalfa
Skips and Flying Pests
Waldron, NYS IPM
I have had
a few calls (Caws) lately regarding bird damage to field corn. Crows and
geese to be more specific. Newly emerging corn seedlings must be very
tasty this time of year, and wheat a close second.
Remember to watch for BIRD damage in your monitoring activities. Crows,
geese, blackbirds and turkeys like to feed on seed and newly emerging
plants. Empty places in corn field rows? Skips in the field, missing
plants, excavated areas within the row, feathers, tracks and evidence of
A few recommendations for minimizing bird problems in field crops
The biggest losses in corn at this time of year are often from crows,
which pull up seedlings and can decimate a field of young corn.
Paul Curtis says "Turkeys get a bad rap for pulling corn." Paul notes
that studies in Iowa, Wisc. show turkeys primarily take insects and grit
in the fields. Being conspicuously large and visible during the day,
turkeys get blamed for pulling corn. A case of being in the wrong
place at the right time....The Midwestern studies show that growers
have a hard time telling turkey damage from small mammal damage. Most
corn pulling in Iowa was due to squirrels in the field around dawn and
dusk. Growers did not see the squirrels and hence blamed the turkeys.
Cost-effective, safe, and neighbor-friendly options for repelling crows
and other birds have been limited, but there are some reasonable
options. The most common, inexpensive, and easy methods are designed to
frighten birds away.
The following information has been adapted from discussion with Paul
Curtis (Cornell Dept. Natural Resources) and an article by Ruth Hazzard,
UMass Cooperative Extension. Ruth's remarks regarded bird management in
sweet corn but may have utility for our field crop settings.
Scary Noises.Propane cannons may provide some relief by scaring
them, however crows, geese, blackbirds and turkeys can adapt to the
sound and one should consider community relations when installing a
source of regular "Ka-Booms".
Repelling devices include recordings of distress calls or predatory
birds, visual deterrents such as scare-eyes or shiny tapes, and
exploding devices such as shellcrackers and cannons. Often, birds are
most effectively repelled by a combination of types of devices. Paul
reports success with an electronic bird distress call device ("Bird
Gard") in controlling blackbirds in ripening sweet corn fields. It
probably would work well for corn sprouts also. Paul says he has not
tried it with crows. He adds that geese ignore the device in suburban
areas near ponds.
Some sources of auditory and visual frightening devices are:
300 Calvert Avenue, Alexandria, Virginia 22301 1-800-NO-BIRDS (662-4737)
or 1-703-299-8855 Fax: 703-299-0844.
Bird-X, Inc, 300 N. Elizabeth St., Chicago, IL. 60607 U.S.A.
800-662-5021 or 312-226-2473. Gemplers' : GEMPLER'S, P.O. Box 44993,
Madison, WI 53744-4993, 1-800-382-8473.
Planter/Planting Time Details: Pay close attention to planter
settings for depth and seed slot closure, planting at a higher
population on fields where bird feeding is anticipated. Calibrate
planters and check plant populations after emergence.
Bird seed/feed alternatives: Set out alternative or decoy foods
for birds. Paul Curtis suggests using milo/millet as an alternative food
for birds. Milo/millet is less attractive to deer than corn. Also, be
aware that it is illegal to bait deer anywhere in NYS, so if deer use
the bird feed growers will have to stop putting it out.
Scary Shiny Objects: Reflective bird tape that is silver on one
side and red on the other can be twisted and suspended about 6 inches
above the newly seeded rows. A field full of this shiny tape will
disorient bird and grower alike. Mylar tape has worked well for
some bird species, but the area that can be treated is limited. It
breaks easily in high winds, and probably has limited application in
commercial fields (but is good for home gardens).
A method that is sometimes discussed in the literature is a bird-scare
balloon with shiny, mylar "eyes," or inflatable owls. In Paul's
experience, these techniques have not been of much value for most fruit
and vegetable crops.
Really, really scary option Paul suggests another, new on the
scene, combination option: the "Scary-Man Fall Guy". You gotta love the
name.. It has noise and an inflatable human effigy. It seems to
work well in aquaculture situations. Trials are needed in grain crop
situations. Paul expects that crows and turkeys would avoid this device,
but it is expensive. Check out their web site:
Scarecrows. No really. check out
the website.. Could add interesting ambiance to your neighborhood at
Vertebrate problems a concern for your producers? You may be
interested in a new website Paul Curtis and NYS DEC have launched : Best
Practices for nuisance wildlife control operators: A training manual.
The site is at: http://nwco.net/. This site contains the electronic
version of a training manual created by the New York State Department of
Environmental Conservation and Cornell University.
American crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos)
Best Practices: American Crow
Wildlife Damage Management Fact Sheet Series: Crows
Canada geese (Branta canadensis, several races)
Best Practices: Geese
Note: the product list in this article is definitely not exhaustive;
inclusion in this list does not imply product endorsement nor does
exclusion imply lack of endorsement.
Applying any of the suggestions in field crop settings? Likely
implementation depends on the severity of the problem, local
practicality, and ability of the producer to respond. Any thoughts or
additional suggestions from the field are welcome.
Thanks to Paul Curtis and Lynn Braband (NYS/IPM) for their suggestions.
slugs a threat to corn and soybeans this year?
Stavisky, NYS IPM
in from Ohio that slugs are hitting corn and soybean fields. Problems
were widespread in soybeans in NY last year, and the threat for this
year’s crops may be just around the corner.
the winter as eggs. The overwintering eggs are usually laid in the
general area where slugs were feeding the previous spring, summer, and
fall. Thus, if they were a problem in an area last year, there’s a good
chance they will be back for more. Slugs will attack seedlings and lower
leaves, leaving coarse, irregular holes and characteristic “slime
trails” in their wake. Feeding may result in serious injury and even
stand reduction under severe infestations.
prefer cool and moist conditions, and they thrive when there are
hideouts in the field, such as in the cover provided by debris on the
soil surface. Slugs tend to feed most when temperatures are in the mid
60’s. Stand reduction problems have typically been worst during wet,
cool springs. Will this hot, dry spell slow down the slugs? So far,
slugs have not been seen as much this year as they were last year,
though we should continue to watch soybean and corn vigilantly. At
highest threat are no-till soybean fields where slug problems occurred
Degree Days in NYS
Waldron, NYS IPM
March 1 -
June 7, 2005
Base 48 F
Base 50 F
Waldron, NYS IPM
crop production activity records by field, including harvest date,
pesticides used, nutrient inputs including manure, etc.
Established Alfalfa and Hay:
hay harvesting and storage
alfalfa stand counts if not done earlier in the season.
Monitor stubble for alfalfa weevil treat if necessary.
Potato leafhopper monitoring
Monitor fields for weeds and diseases: record information on type and
location for future cropping decisions.
Evaluate weeds and adjust post-emergence treatments
Cultivate or treat if necessary
Monitor insects (cutworm, rootworm, wireworm, etc.), slugs, and foliar
diseases (anthracnose leaf blight, eye spot, gray leaf spot, etc.)
Pre-Nitrogen Sidedress Soil Test and apply sidedress as needed
Evaluate stand for emergence issues, plant population
to monitor for soybean aphids, soybean rust
condition of flag leaf for cereal leafbeetle and foliar (and head)
Wheat expected to be heading and flowering stages
grains expected to be in jointing and stem elongation stages - continue
scouting for powdery mildew and cereal leaf beetle
Insecticidal ear tags for heifers on pasture
management and initiate release of biological control agents (parasitic
wasps) for house fly and stable fly control in confinement facilities.
condition of pastures and animals on pastures
pasture rotation as necessary
Evaluate need for face fly and stable fly control measures
any repairs to harvesting equipment as they are cleaned and lubricated.
forage harvest equipment as needed
Prepare small grain combining equipment or arrange for custom combining
grain handling and storage equipment, augers, bins, fans.
ahead for a vacation. Summer (like life…) is short. All work
and no play
Wednesday NY Weed Science Field Day, Valatie Research Farm. Valatie,
NY (State Farm Road off Route 9 just north of Valatie)
Thursday Seed Growers’ Field Day, NYSIP Foundation Seed Barn, Ithaca,
NY (791 Dryden Road, Route 366)
- Wednesday NY Weed Science Field Day, Robert B. Musgrave Research
Farm, Aurora, NY (Poplar Ridge Road, connects 90 and 34B)
Thursday NY Weed Science Field Day, H. C. Thompson Research
Farm, Freeville, NY (10 miles Northeast of Ithaca, Fall Creek Road, Rt.
Friday Aurora Field Day, Robert B. Musgrave Research Farm, Aurora,
NY (Poplar Ridge Road, connects 90 and 34B)
Stavisky:IPM Area Educator, Livestock and Field Crops,
Phone: (315) 331-8415
Fax: (315) 331-8411
Waldron: NYS Livestock and Field Crops IPM Coordinator
(315) 787 - 2432
Wise: Eastern NYS IPM Area Educator: Field Crops and Livestock