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Vertebrate Damage Mitigation Practices

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Information on Apple IPM Practices for Specific Pests

Animal Pest Preferred Practices Under IFP
Beaver Wire trunk guards, exclusion drift fencing
Birds Netting; visual scare device (eye-spot balloons, silhouettes, reflective tape); auditory frightening device (recorded alarm calls, pyrotectics, propane cannon).
Rabbits Exclusion fencing (individual wire guards or 2 ft. (60 cm) high area exclusion fencing); habitat manipulations including removal of brush piles & protective cover within orchards.
Raccoons Electrified exclusion fencing.
Voles Wire trunk guards; close mowing of orchard middles; vegetation reductions (<40% ground cover) under trees; removal of dropped apples and prunings; habitat manipulations including elimination of unmowable areas within orchards; monitor to determine the need for rodenticides.
White-Tailed Deer Exclusion fencing (8 ft. (244 cm) high-tensile woven wire or 5 to 6 ft. (152 to 183 cm) electric exclusion fencing; peanut-butter baited electric fences; invisible fencing with dogs); habitat manipulation including elimination of protective cover within orchards.
Woodchucks Exclusion fencing (individual wire guards or electrified exclusion fencing); habitat manipulation including removal of brush piles within orchards.
Animal Pest Practices where Restrictions and Caution Apply*
Beaver Population reduction through trapping by licensed trapper or licensed nuisance wildlife control agent.
Birds Population reduction through shooting by licensed hunter of permitted species in appropriate season (crows, turkeys); or unprotected species (European starlings, English sparrows, pigeons).
Rabbits Population reduction through shooting by licensed hunters or landowners in appropriate seasons; through trapping by landowner or by licensed nuisance wildlife control agent.
Raccoons Population reduction through shooting by licensed hunters or landowners in appropriate seasons; through trapping by landowner, by licensed trapper, or by licensed nuisance wildlife control agent.
Voles Population control through trapping by landowner.
White-Tailed Deer Population reduction through shooting by licensed hunters, landowners or their agents with nuisance deer permits.
Woodchucks Population reduction through shooting by licensed hunters or landowners; through trapping by landowner or by licensed nuisance wildlife control agent.

* Conduct shooting and trapping only as defined by New York State Department of Environmental Conservation regulations. Shooting for nuisance wildlife control is allowed only when neighboring occupied buildings are >500 ft. distant; shooting when neighboring buildings are less than 500 ft. distant requires neighbor permission. Also check local ordinances, as shooting and trapping are prohibited in some areas.

Consult Cornell Pest Management Guidelines for Commercial Tree-Fruit Production for further information.